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memorise (Also memorises, memorised, memorising) : Related Words Words similar in meaning to memorise

represent

  • verb take the place of or be parallel or equivalent to
    correspond; stand for.
    • Because of the sound changes in the course of history, an 'h' in Greek stands for an 's' in Latin
  • verb express indirectly by an image, form, or model; be a symbol
    symbolise; typify; symbolize; stand for.
    • What does the Statue of Liberty symbolize?

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concept

  • noun an abstract or general idea inferred or derived from specific instances
    conception; construct.

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dogged

  • adjective satellite stubbornly unyielding
    tenacious; dour; persistent; unyielding; pertinacious.
    • dogged persistence
    • dour determination
    • the most vocal and pertinacious of all the critics
    • a mind not gifted to discover truth but tenacious to hold it"- T.S.Eliot
    • men tenacious of opinion
  • verb go after with the intent to catch
    go after; chase after; track; dog; trail; tail; tag; give chase; chase.
    • The policeman chased the mugger down the alley
    • the dog chased the rabbit

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consider

  • verb deem to be
    reckon; see; regard; view.
    • She views this quite differently from me
    • I consider her to be shallow
    • I don't see the situation quite as negatively as you do
  • verb give careful consideration to
    study.
    • consider the possibility of moving

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perseverance

  • noun persistent determination
    persistency; tenaciousness; doggedness; tenacity; pertinacity; persistence.
  • noun the act of persisting or persevering; continuing or repeating behavior
    perseveration; persistence.
    • his perseveration continued to the point where it was no longer appropriate

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relieve

  • verb provide physical relief, as from pain
    assuage; palliate; alleviate.
    • This pill will relieve your headaches
  • verb free someone temporarily from his or her obligations
    take over.

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peruse

  • verb examine or consider with attention and in detail
    • Please peruse this report at your leisure

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focus

  • noun the concentration of attention or energy on something
    direction; centering; focussing; focal point; focusing.
    • the focus of activity shifted to molecular biology
    • he had no direction in his life
  • noun maximum clarity or distinctness of an image rendered by an optical system
    • in focus
    • out of focus

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commute

  • noun a regular journey of some distance to and from your place of work
    • there is standing room only on the high-speed commute
  • verb exchange positions without a change in value
    transpose.
    • These operators commute with each other

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generalize

  • verb draw from specific cases for more general cases
    extrapolate; infer; generalise.
  • verb speak or write in generalities
    generalise.

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amiss

  • adjective satellite not functioning properly
    wrong; haywire; awry.
    • something is amiss
    • has gone completely haywire
    • something is wrong with the engine
  • adverb away from the correct or expected course
    awry.
    • something has gone awry in our plans
    • something went badly amiss in the preparations

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follow

  • verb to travel behind, go after, come after
    • The ducklings followed their mother around the pond
    • Please follow the guide through the museum
  • verb be later in time
    postdate.
    • Tuesday always follows Monday

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rationalize_away

  • verb substitute a natural for a supernatural explanation of
    rationalise away.
    • you can rationalize away all the strange noises you hear--there is no poltergeist in the house!

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ruminate

  • verb chew the cuds
    • cows ruminate
  • verb reflect deeply on a subject
    ponder; mull; muse; think over; reflect; contemplate; meditate; chew over; mull over; excogitate; speculate.
    • I mulled over the events of the afternoon
    • philosophers have speculated on the question of God for thousands of years
    • The scientist must stop to observe and start to excogitate

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rekindle

  • verb kindle anew, as of a fire
  • verb arouse again
    • rekindle hopes
    • rekindle her love

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reasoning

  • noun thinking that is coherent and logical
    abstract thought; logical thinking.
  • verb decide by reasoning; draw or come to a conclusion
    reason; reason out; conclude.
    • We reasoned that it was cheaper to rent than to buy a house

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retention

  • noun the act of retaining something
    keeping; holding.
  • noun the power of retaining and recalling past experience
    retentivity; retentiveness; memory.
    • he had a good memory when he was younger

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calculate

  • verb make a mathematical calculation or computation
    cypher; compute; work out; reckon; cipher; figure.
  • verb judge to be probable
    figure; reckon; forecast; estimate; count on.

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idealise

  • verb consider or render as ideal
    idealize.
    • She idealized her husband after his death
  • verb form ideals
    idealize.
    • Man has always idealized

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reason_out

  • verb decide by reasoning; draw or come to a conclusion
    reason; conclude.
    • We reasoned that it was cheaper to rent than to buy a house

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to

The preposition to primarily indicates approach and arrival, motion made in the direction of a place or thing and attaining it, access; and also, motion or tendency without arrival; movement toward; -- opposed to from. "To Canterbury they wend." Chaucer.
Stay with us, go not to Wittenberg. Shak.
So to the sylvan lodge They came, that like Pomona's arbor smiled. Milton.
I'll to him again, . . . He'll tell me all his purpose. She stretched her arms to heaven. Dryden.

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program

  • noun a series of steps to be carried out or goals to be accomplished
    plan; programme.
    • they drew up a six-step plan
    • they discussed plans for a new bond issue
  • noun a system of projects or services intended to meet a public need
    programme.
    • he proposed an elaborate program of public works
    • working mothers rely on the day care program

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obstinate

  • verb persist stubbornly
    • he obstinates himself against all rational arguments
  • adjective tenaciously unwilling or marked by tenacious unwillingness to yield
    stubborn; unregenerate.

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present

  • noun the period of time that is happening now; any continuous stretch of time including the moment of speech
    nowadays.
    • that is enough for the present
    • he lives in the present with no thought of tomorrow
  • noun something presented as a gift
    • his tie was a present from his wife

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tenacity

  • noun persistent determination
    perseverance; persistency; tenaciousness; doggedness; pertinacity; persistence.

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include

  • verb have as a part, be made up out of
    • The list includes the names of many famous writers
  • verb consider as part of something
    • I include you in the list of culprits

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memorialization

  • noun a ceremony to honor the memory of someone or something
    commemoration; memorialisation.

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fill-in

  • noun someone who takes the place of another (as when things get dangerous or difficult)
    stand-in; substitute; relief; backup; reliever; backup man.
    • the star had a stand-in for dangerous scenes
    • we need extra employees for summer fill-ins

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persevere

  • verb be persistent, refuse to stop
    hold on; hang on; hang in; persist.
    • he persisted to call me every night
    • The child persisted and kept asking questions

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conjecture

  • noun a hypothesis that has been formed by speculating or conjecturing (usually with little hard evidence)
    speculation.
    • speculations about the outcome of the election
    • he dismissed it as mere conjecture
  • noun a message expressing an opinion based on incomplete evidence
    guess; supposition; surmisal; hypothesis; speculation; surmise.

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misunderstanding

  • noun putting the wrong interpretation on
    mistaking; misinterpretation.
    • his misinterpretation of the question caused his error
    • there was no mistaking her meaning
  • noun an understanding of something that is not correct
    misapprehension; mistake.
    • he wasn't going to admit his mistake
    • make no mistake about his intentions
    • there must be some misunderstanding--I don't have a sister

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induce

  • verb cause to arise
    bring on.
    • induce a crisis
  • verb cause to do; cause to act in a specified manner
    get; make; have; cause; stimulate.
    • The ads induced me to buy a VCR
    • My children finally got me to buy a computer
    • My wife made me buy a new sofa

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figment

  • noun a contrived or fantastic idea
    • a figment of the imagination

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smack

  • noun a blow from a flat object (as an open hand)
    slap.
  • noun the taste experience when a savoury condiment is taken into the mouth
    nip; tang; flavour; savor; savour; sapidity; flavor; relish.

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resonant

  • adjective satellite characterized by resonance
    resonating; resounding; reverberating; reverberative.
    • a resonant voice
    • hear the rolling thunder
  • adjective satellite serving to bring to mind
    reminiscent; remindful; evocative; redolent.
    • cannot forbear to close on this redolent literary note"- Wilder Hobson
    • a campaign redolent of machine politics

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trouble

  • noun a source of difficulty
    problem.
    • one trouble after another delayed the job
    • what's the problem?
  • noun an angry disturbance
    bother; hassle; fuss.
    • he didn't want to make a fuss
    • they had labor trouble
    • a spot of bother

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whimsy

  • noun an odd or fanciful or capricious idea
    whim; whimsey; notion.
    • the theatrical notion of disguise is associated with disaster in his stories
    • he had a whimsy about flying to the moon
    • whimsy can be humorous to someone with time to enjoy it
  • noun the trait of acting unpredictably and more from whim or caprice than from reason or judgment
    arbitrariness; whimsicality; capriciousness; whimsey; flightiness.
    • I despair at the flightiness and whimsicality of my memory

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prize

  • noun something given for victory or superiority in a contest or competition or for winning a lottery
    award.
    • the prize was a free trip to Europe
  • noun goods or money obtained illegally
    swag; booty; pillage; plunder; dirty money; loot.

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daydream

  • noun absentminded dreaming while awake
    revery; castle in Spain; air castle; daydreaming; reverie; castle in the air; oneirism.
  • verb have a daydream; indulge in a fantasy
    woolgather; stargaze; dream.

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conceive

  • verb have the idea for
    gestate; conceptualize; conceptualise.
    • He conceived of a robot that would help paralyzed patients
    • This library was well conceived
  • verb judge or regard; look upon; judge
    believe; think; consider.
    • I think he is very smart
    • I believe her to be very smart
    • I think that he is her boyfriend
    • The racist conceives such people to be inferior

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list

  • noun a database containing an ordered array of items (names or topics)
    listing.
  • noun the property possessed by a line or surface that departs from the vertical
    tilt; lean; leaning; inclination.
    • the tower had a pronounced tilt
    • the ship developed a list to starboard
    • he walked with a heavy inclination to the right

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call_back

  • verb cause to be returned
    recall; call in; withdraw.
    • recall the defective auto tires
    • The manufacturer tried to call back the spoilt yoghurt
  • verb recall knowledge from memory; have a recollection
    retrieve; remember; recall; recollect; think; call up.
    • I can't remember saying any such thing
    • I can't think what her last name was
    • can you remember her phone number?
    • Do you remember that he once loved you?
    • call up memories

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idealize

  • verb consider or render as ideal
    idealise.
    • She idealized her husband after his death
  • verb form ideals
    idealise.
    • Man has always idealized

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mistaking

  • noun putting the wrong interpretation on
    misunderstanding; misinterpretation.
    • his misinterpretation of the question caused his error
    • there was no mistaking her meaning
  • verb identify incorrectly
    misidentify; mistake.
    • Don't mistake her for her twin sister

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relation

  • noun an abstraction belonging to or characteristic of two entities or parts together
  • noun the act of sexual procreation between a man and a woman; the man's penis is inserted into the woman's vagina and excited until orgasm and ejaculation occur
    congress; intercourse; sexual intercourse; sex act; sexual relation; carnal knowledge; sexual congress; copulation; coitus; coition.

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refer

  • verb make reference to
    name; bring up; advert; mention; cite.
    • His name was mentioned in connection with the invention
  • verb be relevant to
    touch on; relate; pertain; have-to doe with; bear on; touch; come to; concern.
    • There were lots of questions referring to her talk
    • My remark pertained to your earlier comments

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pass_judgment

  • verb form a critical opinion of
    judge; evaluate.
    • I cannot judge some works of modern art
    • How do you evaluate this grant proposal?" "We shouldn't pass judgment on other people

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conceptualize

  • verb have the idea for
    gestate; conceive; conceptualise.
    • He conceived of a robot that would help paralyzed patients
    • This library was well conceived

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programme

  • noun an announcement of the events that will occur as part of a theatrical or sporting event
    program.
    • you can't tell the players without a program
  • noun an integrated course of academic studies
    course of study; syllabus; curriculum; program.
    • he was admitted to a new program at the university

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chew

  • noun a wad of something chewable as tobacco
    plug; wad; quid; cud; chaw.
  • noun biting and grinding food in your mouth so it becomes soft enough to swallow
    manduction; chewing; mastication.

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pretend

  • noun the enactment of a pretense
    make-believe.
    • it was just pretend
  • verb make believe with the intent to deceive
    affect; feign; dissemble; sham.
    • He feigned that he was ill
    • He shammed a headache

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secernate

  • verb mark as different
    severalise; separate; severalize; tell apart; differentiate; distinguish; tell; secern.
    • We distinguish several kinds of maple

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colligate

  • verb make a logical or causal connection
    tie in; associate; relate; link; connect; link up.
    • I cannot connect these two pieces of evidence in my mind
    • colligate these facts
    • I cannot relate these events at all
  • verb consider (an instance of something) as part of a general rule or principle
    subsume.

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pore

  • noun any tiny hole admitting passage of a liquid (fluid or gas)
  • noun any small opening in the skin or outer surface of an animal

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discover

  • verb discover or determine the existence, presence, or fact of
    notice; observe; detect; find.
    • She detected high levels of lead in her drinking water
    • We found traces of lead in the paint
  • verb get to know or become aware of, usually accidentally
    pick up; get a line; see; hear; learn; find out; get wind; get word.
    • I learned that she has two grown-up children
    • I see that you have been promoted

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rationalise_away

  • verb substitute a natural for a supernatural explanation of
    rationalize away.
    • you can rationalize away all the strange noises you hear--there is no poltergeist in the house!

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take_to_heart

  • verb get down to; pay attention to; take seriously
    attend to.
    • Attend to your duties, please

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imply

  • verb express or state indirectly
    connote.
  • verb suggest as a logically necessary consequence; in logic

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imprinting

  • noun a learning process in early life whereby species specific patterns of behavior are established
  • verb establish or impress firmly in the mind
    imprint; form.
    • We imprint our ideas onto our children

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design

  • noun the act of working out the form of something (as by making a sketch or outline or plan)
    designing.
    • he contributed to the design of a new instrument
  • noun an arrangement scheme
    plan.
    • the awkward design of the keyboard made operation difficult
    • it was an excellent design for living
    • a plan for seating guests

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talker

  • noun someone who expresses in language; someone who talks (especially someone who delivers a public speech or someone especially garrulous)
    verbalizer; speaker; utterer; verbaliser.
    • the speaker at commencement
    • an utterer of useful maxims

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pass

  • noun (baseball) an advance to first base by a batter who receives four balls
    base on balls; walk.
    • he worked the pitcher for a base on balls
  • noun (military) a written leave of absence
    • he had a pass for three days

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perusing

  • noun reading carefully with intent to remember
    perusal; studying; poring over.
  • verb examine or consider with attention and in detail
    peruse.
    • Please peruse this report at your leisure

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substitute

  • noun a person or thing that takes or can take the place of another
    replacement.
  • noun an athlete who plays only when a starter on the team is replaced
    second-stringer; reserve.

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will

  • noun the capability of conscious choice and decision and intention
    volition.
    • the exercise of their volition we construe as revolt"- George Meredith
  • noun a fixed and persistent intent or purpose
    • where there's a will there's a way

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sub

  • noun a large sandwich made of a long crusty roll split lengthwise and filled with meats and cheese (and tomato and onion and lettuce and condiments); different names are used in different sections of the United States
    wedge; bomber; hero; hero sandwich; poor boy; submarine; zep; Cuban sandwich; grinder; torpedo; hoagie; Italian sandwich; hoagy; submarine sandwich.
  • noun a submersible warship usually armed with torpedoes
    submarine; U-boat; pigboat.

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section

  • noun a self-contained part of a larger composition (written or musical)
    subdivision.
    • he always turns first to the business section
    • the history of this work is discussed in the next section
  • noun a very thin slice (of tissue or mineral or other substance) for examination under a microscope
    • sections from the left ventricle showed diseased tissue

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commemorating

  • adjective intended as a commemoration
    commemorative.
    • a commemorative plaque
  • verb mark by some ceremony or observation
    commemorate; mark.
    • The citizens mark the anniversary of the revolution with a march and a parade

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favour

  • noun a feeling of favorable regard
    favor.
  • noun an inclination to approve
    favor.
    • that style is in favor this season

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verbalize

  • verb be verbose
    verbalise.
    • This lawyer verbalizes and is rather tedious
  • verb express in speech
    verbalise; mouth; utter; talk; speak.
    • She talks a lot of nonsense
    • This depressed patient does not verbalize

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reminiscent

  • adjective satellite serving to bring to mind
    remindful; evocative; redolent; resonant.
    • cannot forbear to close on this redolent literary note"- Wilder Hobson
    • a campaign redolent of machine politics

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suspect

  • noun someone who is under suspicion
  • noun a person or institution against whom an action is brought in a court of law; the person being sued or accused
    defendant.

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reconstruction

  • noun the activity of constructing something again
  • noun the period after the American Civil War when the southern states were reorganized and reintegrated into the Union; 1865-1877
    Reconstruction Period.

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blur

  • noun a hazy or indistinct representation
    fuzz.
    • it happened so fast it was just a blur
    • he tried to clear his head of the whisky fuzz
  • verb become glassy; lose clear vision
    glaze over; film over.
    • Her eyes glazed over from lack of sleep

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learned

  • adjective satellite having or showing profound knowledge
    erudite.
    • a learned jurist
    • an erudite professor
  • verb gain knowledge or skills
    acquire; larn; learn.
    • She learned dancing from her sister
    • I learned Sanskrit
    • Children acquire language at an amazing rate

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contrast

  • noun the opposition or dissimilarity of things that are compared
    direct contrast.
    • in contrast to", "by contrast
  • noun the act of distinguishing by comparing differences

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mull

  • noun a term used in Scottish names of promontories
    • the Mull of Kintyre
  • noun an island in western Scotland in the Inner Hebrides

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exchange

  • noun chemical process in which one atom or ion or group changes places with another
  • noun a mutual expression of views (especially an unpleasant one)
    • they had a bitter exchange

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brush_up

  • verb refresh one's memory
    review; refresh.
    • I reviewed the material before the test
  • verb bring to a highly developed, finished, or refined state
    polish up; polish; round; round off.
    • polish your social manners

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understanding

  • noun the cognitive condition of someone who understands
    apprehension; savvy; discernment.
    • he has virtually no understanding of social cause and effect
  • noun the statement (oral or written) of an exchange of promises
    agreement.
    • they had an agreement that they would not interfere in each other's business
    • there was an understanding between management and the workers

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contemplate

  • verb look at thoughtfully; observe deep in thought
    • contemplate one's navel
  • verb consider as a possibility
    • I contemplated leaving school and taking a full-time job

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affiliated

  • adjective satellite being joined in close association
    connected; attached.
    • affiliated clubs
    • all art schools whether independent or attached to universities
  • verb keep company with; hang out with
    assort; associate; affiliate; consort.
    • He associates with strange people
    • She affiliates with her colleagues

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bring_up

  • verb summon into action or bring into existence, often as if by magic
    arouse; raise; invoke; conjure up; call down; call forth; evoke; put forward; stir; conjure.
    • raise the specter of unemployment
    • he conjured wild birds in the air
    • call down the spirits from the mountain
  • verb bring up
    parent; nurture; raise; rear.
    • raise a family
    • bring up children

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change

  • noun an event that occurs when something passes from one state or phase to another
    modification; alteration.
    • the change was intended to increase sales
    • this storm is certainly a change for the worse
    • the neighborhood had undergone few modifications since his last visit years ago
  • noun a relational difference between states; especially between states before and after some event
    • he attributed the change to their marriage

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suggest

  • verb make a proposal, declare a plan for something
    propose; advise.
    • the senator proposed to abolish the sales tax
  • verb drop a hint; intimate by a hint
    hint.

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convert

  • noun a person who has been converted to another religious or political belief
  • verb change from one system to another or to a new plan or policy
    change over.
    • We converted from 220 to 110 Volt

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substance

  • noun the real physical matter of which a person or thing consists
    • DNA is the substance of our genes
  • noun the choicest or most essential or most vital part of some idea or experience
    kernel; center; centre; nitty-gritty; essence; sum; meat; heart; pith; nub; heart and soul; core; inwardness; marrow; gist.
    • the gist of the prosecutor's argument
    • the heart and soul of the Republican Party
    • the nub of the story

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misinterpret

  • verb interpret falsely
  • verb interpret wrongly
    misread.
    • I misread Hamlet all my life!

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rethink

  • noun thinking again about a choice previously made
    second thought; afterthought; reconsideration.
    • he had second thoughts about his purchase
  • verb change one's mind
    • He rethought his decision to take a vacation

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reason

  • noun a rational motive for a belief or action
    ground.
    • the reason that war was declared
    • the grounds for their declaration
  • noun an explanation of the cause of some phenomenon
    • the reason a steady state was never reached was that the back pressure built up too slowly

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rousing

  • noun the act of arousing
    arousal.
    • the purpose of art is the arousal of emotions
  • verb become active
    bestir; rouse.
    • He finally bestirred himself

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verbalise

  • verb be verbose
    verbalize.
    • This lawyer verbalizes and is rather tedious
  • verb express in speech
    verbalize; mouth; utter; talk; speak.
    • She talks a lot of nonsense
    • This depressed patient does not verbalize

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suggestion

  • noun an idea that is suggested
    • the picnic was her suggestion
  • noun a proposal offered for acceptance or rejection
    proposition; proffer.
    • it was a suggestion we couldn't refuse

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permutation

  • noun an event in which one thing is substituted for another
    replacement; transposition; switch; substitution.
    • the replacement of lost blood by a transfusion of donor blood
  • noun the act of changing the arrangement of a given number of elements

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decouple

  • verb disconnect or separate
    uncouple.
    • uncouple the hounds
  • verb regard as unconnected
    dissociate.
    • you must dissociate these two events!
    • decouple our foreign policy from ideology

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semantic_memory

  • noun your memory for meanings and general (impersonal) facts

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stand-in

  • noun someone who takes the place of another (as when things get dangerous or difficult)
    fill-in; substitute; relief; backup; reliever; backup man.
    • the star had a stand-in for dangerous scenes
    • we need extra employees for summer fill-ins

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personal_memory

  • noun memory for episodes in your own life
    episodic memory.

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imaging

  • noun the ability to form mental images of things or events
    mental imagery; imagination; imagery.
    • he could still hear her in his imagination
  • noun (medicine) obtaining pictures of the interior of the body
    tomography.

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foresee

  • verb realize beforehand
    anticipate; foreknow; previse.
  • verb picture to oneself; imagine possible
    envision.
    • I cannot envision him as President

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hunch

  • noun an impression that something might be the case
    intuition; suspicion.
    • he had an intuition that something had gone wrong
  • noun the act of bending yourself into a humped position

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committal

  • noun the official act of consigning a person to confinement (as in a prison or mental hospital)
    consignment; commitment.
  • noun the act of committing a crime
    commission; perpetration.

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replace

  • verb substitute a person or thing for (another that is broken or inefficient or lost or no longer working or yielding what is expected)
    • He replaced the old razor blade
    • We need to replace the secretary that left a month ago
    • the insurance will replace the lost income
    • This antique vase can never be replaced
  • verb take the place or move into the position of
    supercede; supplant; supersede; supervene upon.
    • Smith replaced Miller as CEO after Miller left
    • the computer has supplanted the slide rule
    • Mary replaced Susan as the team's captain and the highest-ranked player in the school

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psychological

  • adjective satellite mental or emotional as opposed to physical in nature
    • give psychological support
    • psychological warfare
  • adjective of or relating to or determined by psychology
    • psychological theories

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motor

  • noun machine that converts other forms of energy into mechanical energy and so imparts motion
  • noun a nonspecific agent that imparts motion
    • happiness is the aim of all men and the motor of all action

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paint_a_picture

  • verb call to mind
    suggest; evoke.
    • this remark evoked sadness

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engram

  • noun a postulated biochemical change (presumably in neural tissue) that represents a memory
    memory trace.

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concoct

  • verb make a concoction (of) by mixing
  • verb prepare or cook by mixing ingredients
    cook up.
    • concoct a strange mixture

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ask_for

  • verb increase the likelihood of
    invite.
    • ask for trouble
    • invite criticism

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working

  • noun a mine or quarry that is being or has been worked
    workings.
  • verb exert oneself by doing mental or physical work for a purpose or out of necessity
    work.
    • I will work hard to improve my grades
    • she worked hard for better living conditions for the poor

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injure

  • verb cause injuries or bodily harm to
    wound.
  • verb hurt the feelings of
    spite; wound; bruise; hurt; offend.
    • She hurt me when she did not include me among her guests
    • This remark really bruised my ego

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immediate_memory

  • noun what you can repeat immediately after perceiving it
    short-term memory; STM.

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stick_about

  • verb be available or ready for a certain function or service
    stick around; stand by.

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single

  • noun a base hit on which the batter stops safely at first base
    bingle.
  • noun the smallest whole number or a numeral representing this number
    ace; I; unity; one; 1.
    • he has the one but will need a two and three to go with it
    • they had lunch at one

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glimmering

  • noun a slight suggestion or vague understanding
    glimmer; intimation; inkling.
    • he had no inkling what was about to happen
  • verb shine brightly, like a star or a light
    gleam; glimmer.

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rationalise

  • verb structure and run according to rational or scientific principles in order to achieve desired results
    rationalize.
    • We rationalized the factory's production and raised profits
  • verb defend, explain, clear away, or make excuses for by reasoning
    rationalize; apologise; excuse; apologize; justify.
    • rationalize the child's seemingly crazy behavior
    • he rationalized his lack of success

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call

  • noun a telephone connection
    telephone call; phone call.
    • she reported several anonymous calls
    • he placed a phone call to London
    • he heard the phone ringing but didn't want to take the call
  • noun a special disposition (as if from a divine source) to pursue a particular course
    • he was disappointed that he had not heard the Call

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memory

  • noun something that is remembered
    • search as he would, the memory was lost
  • noun the cognitive processes whereby past experience is remembered
    remembering.
    • he can do it from memory
    • he enjoyed remembering his father

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strike

  • noun a group's refusal to work in protest against low pay or bad work conditions
    work stoppage.
    • the strike lasted more than a month before it was settled
  • noun an attack that is intended to seize or inflict damage on or destroy an objective
    • the strike was scheduled to begin at dawn

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cram

  • verb crowd or pack to capacity
    wad; ram; jampack; jam; chock up.
    • the theater was jampacked
  • verb put something somewhere so that the space is completely filled
    • cram books into the suitcase

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type

  • noun a subdivision of a particular kind of thing
    • what type of sculpture do you prefer?
  • noun a person of a specified kind (usually with many eccentricities)
    case; eccentric; character.
    • a real character
    • a strange character
    • a friendly eccentric
    • the capable type
    • a mental case

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tell

  • verb express in words
    state; say.
    • He said that he wanted to marry her
    • tell me what is bothering you
    • state your opinion
    • state your name
  • noun a Swiss patriot who lived in the early 14th century and who was renowned for his skill as an archer; according to legend an Austrian governor compelled him to shoot an apple from his son's head with his crossbow (which he did successfully without mishap)
    William Tell.

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swap

  • noun an equal exchange
    swop; barter; trade.
    • we had no money so we had to live by barter
  • verb exchange or give (something) in exchange for
    switch; swop; trade.

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sort

  • noun a category of things distinguished by some common characteristic or quality
    kind; form; variety.
    • sculpture is a form of art
    • what kinds of desserts are there?
  • noun an approximate definition or example
    • she wore a sort of magenta dress
    • she served a creamy sort of dessert thing

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inductive_reasoning

  • noun reasoning from detailed facts to general principles
    generalisation; induction; generalization.

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memorialise

  • verb address in a memorial
    memorialize.
    • The President memorialized the heroes of the battle
  • verb be or provide a memorial to a person or an event
    immortalize; commemorate; record; memorialize; immortalise.
    • This sculpture commemorates the victims of the concentration camps
    • We memorialized the Dead

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retrospection

  • noun reference to things past
    • the story begins with no introductory retrospections
  • noun memory for experiences that are past
    • some psychologists tried to contrast retrospection and introspection

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episodic_memory

  • noun memory for episodes in your own life
    personal memory.

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muse

  • noun the source of an artist's inspiration
    • Euterpe was his muse
  • noun in ancient Greek mythology any of 9 daughters of Zeus and Mnemosyne; protector of an art or science

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aware

  • adjective (sometimes followed by `of') having or showing knowledge or understanding or realization or perception
    cognisant; cognizant.
    • was aware of his opponent's hostility
    • became aware of her surroundings
    • aware that he had exceeded the speed limit
  • adjective bearing in mind; attentive to
    mindful.
    • ever mindful of her health
    • mindful of his responsibilities
    • mindful of these criticisms, I shall attempt to justify my action

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stick

  • noun an implement consisting of a length of wood
    • he collected dry sticks for a campfire
    • the kid had a candied apple on a stick
  • noun a small thin branch of a tree

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hold

  • noun the act of grasping
    grip; clutches; clutch; clench; grasp; clasp.
    • he released his clasp on my arm
    • he has a strong grip for an old man
    • she kept a firm hold on the railing
  • noun understanding of the nature or meaning or quality or magnitude of something
    grasp; appreciation.
    • he has a good grasp of accounting practices

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join

  • noun the shape or manner in which things come together and a connection is made
    juncture; joint; junction; articulation.
  • noun a set containing all and only the members of two or more given sets
    union; sum.
    • let C be the union of the sets A and B

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remindful

  • adjective satellite serving to bring to mind
    reminiscent; evocative; redolent; resonant.
    • cannot forbear to close on this redolent literary note"- Wilder Hobson
    • a campaign redolent of machine politics

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recall

  • noun a request by the manufacturer of a defective product to return the product (as for replacement or repair)
    callback.
  • noun a call to return
    • the recall of our ambassador

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reconstructive

  • adjective satellite helping to restore to good condition
    rehabilitative.
    • reconstructive surgery
    • rehabilitative exercises

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look_back

  • verb look towards one's back
    look backward.
    • don't look back while you walk
  • verb look back upon (a period of time, sequence of events); remember
    review; retrospect.
    • she reviewed her achievements with pride

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inculpate

  • verb suggest that someone is guilty
    incriminate; imply.

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reproduce

  • verb make a copy or equivalent of
    • reproduce the painting
  • verb have offspring or produce more individuals of a given animal or plant
    procreate; multiply.
    • The Bible tells people to procreate

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learn

  • verb gain knowledge or skills
    acquire; larn.
    • She learned dancing from her sister
    • I learned Sanskrit
    • Children acquire language at an amazing rate
  • verb get to know or become aware of, usually accidentally
    pick up; get a line; discover; see; hear; find out; get wind; get word.
    • I learned that she has two grown-up children
    • I see that you have been promoted

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backup_man

  • noun someone who takes the place of another (as when things get dangerous or difficult)
    stand-in; fill-in; substitute; relief; backup; reliever.
    • the star had a stand-in for dangerous scenes
    • we need extra employees for summer fill-ins

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novate

  • verb replace with something new, especially an old obligation by a new one

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history

  • noun the aggregate of past events
    • a critical time in the school's history
  • noun a record or narrative description of past events
    account; story; chronicle.
    • a history of France
    • he gave an inaccurate account of the plot to kill the president
    • the story of exposure to lead

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control

  • noun power to direct or determine
    • under control
  • noun a relation of constraint of one entity (thing or person or group) by another
    • measures for the control of disease
    • they instituted controls over drinking on campus

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heart

  • noun the locus of feelings and intuitions
    bosom.
    • in your heart you know it is true
    • her story would melt your bosom
  • noun the hollow muscular organ located behind the sternum and between the lungs; its rhythmic contractions move the blood through the body
    pump; ticker.
    • he stood still, his heart thumping wildly

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compare

  • noun qualities that are comparable
    comparison; equivalence; comparability.
    • no comparison between the two books
    • beyond compare
  • verb examine and note the similarities or differences of
    • John compared his haircut to his friend's
    • We compared notes after we had both seen the movie

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immortalize

  • verb be or provide a memorial to a person or an event
    memorialise; commemorate; record; memorialize; immortalise.
    • This sculpture commemorates the victims of the concentration camps
    • We memorialized the Dead
  • verb make famous forever
    eternalize; eternalise; eternize; eternise; immortalise.
    • This melody immortalized its composer

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figure

  • noun a diagram or picture illustrating textual material
    fig.
    • the area covered can be seen from Figure 2
  • noun alternative names for the body of a human being
    form; flesh; soma; frame; physique; material body; anatomy; shape; chassis; build; human body; physical body; bod.
    • Leonardo studied the human body
    • he has a strong physique
    • the spirit is willing but the flesh is weak

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give

  • noun the elasticity of something that can be stretched and returns to its original length
    spring; springiness.
  • verb cause to have, in the abstract sense or physical sense
    • She gave him a black eye
    • The draft gave me a cold

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attribute

  • noun a construct whereby objects or individuals can be distinguished
    property; dimension.
    • self-confidence is not an endearing property
  • noun an abstraction belonging to or characteristic of an entity

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sense

  • noun a general conscious awareness
    • a sense of security
    • a sense of happiness
    • a sense of danger
    • a sense of self
  • noun the meaning of a word or expression; the way in which a word or expression or situation can be interpreted
    signified.
    • the dictionary gave several senses for the word
    • in the best sense charity is really a duty
    • the signifier is linked to the signified

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caution

  • noun the trait of being cautious; being attentive to possible danger
    carefulness; cautiousness.
    • a man of caution
  • noun a warning against certain acts
    caveat.
    • a caveat against unfair practices

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recollect

  • verb recall knowledge from memory; have a recollection
    retrieve; remember; recall; call back; think; call up.
    • I can't remember saying any such thing
    • I can't think what her last name was
    • can you remember her phone number?
    • Do you remember that he once loved you?
    • call up memories

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anamnestic

  • adjective of or relating to anamnesis; aiding the memory

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provoke

  • verb call forth (emotions, feelings, and responses)
    raise; fire; enkindle; elicit; arouse; evoke; kindle.
    • arouse pity
    • raise a smile
    • evoke sympathy
  • verb evoke or provoke to appear or occur
    evoke; call forth; kick up.
    • Her behavior provoked a quarrel between the couple

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secern

  • verb mark as different
    secernate; severalise; separate; severalize; tell apart; differentiate; distinguish; tell.
    • We distinguish several kinds of maple

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long-term_memory

  • noun your general store of remembered information
    LTM.

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utilize

  • verb put into service; make work or employ for a particular purpose or for its inherent or natural purpose
    employ; apply; use; utilise.
    • use your head!
    • we only use Spanish at home
    • I can't use this tool
    • Apply a magnetic field here
    • This thinking was applied to many projects
    • How do you utilize this tool?
    • I apply this rule to get good results
    • use the plastic bags to store the food
    • He doesn't know how to use a computer
  • verb convert (from an investment trust to a unit trust)

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reproductive_memory

  • noun recall that is hypothesized to work by storing the original stimulus input and reproducing it during recall
    reproduction.

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memorization

  • noun learning so as to be able to remember verbatim
    memorisation; committal to memory.
    • the actor's memorization of his lines

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classify

  • verb arrange or order by classes or categories
    sort; separate; assort; sort out; class.
    • How would you classify these pottery shards--are they prehistoric?
  • verb declare unavailable, as for security reasons
    • Classify these documents

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evoke

  • verb call forth (emotions, feelings, and responses)
    raise; fire; enkindle; elicit; arouse; kindle; provoke.
    • arouse pity
    • raise a smile
    • evoke sympathy
  • verb evoke or provoke to appear or occur
    provoke; call forth; kick up.
    • Her behavior provoked a quarrel between the couple

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exemplify

  • verb be characteristic of
    represent.
    • This compositional style is exemplified by this fugue
  • verb clarify by giving an example of
    instance; illustrate.

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attend

  • verb be present at (meetings, church services, university), etc.
    go to.
    • She attends class regularly
    • I rarely attend services at my church
    • did you go to the meeting?
  • verb take charge of or deal with
    see; take care; look.
    • Could you see about lunch?
    • I must attend to this matter
    • She took care of this business

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replacing

  • noun the act of furnishing an equivalent person or thing in the place of another
    replacement.
    • replacing the star will not be easy
  • verb substitute a person or thing for (another that is broken or inefficient or lost or no longer working or yielding what is expected)
    replace.
    • He replaced the old razor blade
    • We need to replace the secretary that left a month ago
    • the insurance will replace the lost income
    • This antique vase can never be replaced

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after

  • adjective satellite located farther aft
  • adverb happening at a time subsequent to a reference time
    afterwards; later; later on; subsequently; afterward.
    • he apologized subsequently
    • he's going to the store but he'll be back here later
    • it didn't happen until afterward
    • two hours after that

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preoccupy

  • verb engage or engross the interest or attention of beforehand or occupy urgently or obsessively
    • His work preoccupies him
    • The matter preoccupies her completely--she cannot think of anything else
  • verb occupy or take possession of beforehand or before another or appropriate for use in advance
    • the army preoccupied the hills

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hazard

  • noun a source of danger; a possibility of incurring loss or misfortune
    endangerment; jeopardy; peril; risk.
    • drinking alcohol is a health hazard
  • noun an unknown and unpredictable phenomenon that causes an event to result one way rather than another
    chance; fortune; luck.
    • bad luck caused his downfall
    • we ran into each other by pure chance

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reflect

  • verb manifest or bring back
    • This action reflects his true beliefs
  • verb reflect deeply on a subject
    ponder; ruminate; mull; muse; think over; contemplate; meditate; chew over; mull over; excogitate; speculate.
    • I mulled over the events of the afternoon
    • philosophers have speculated on the question of God for thousands of years
    • The scientist must stop to observe and start to excogitate

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tack

  • noun the heading or position of a vessel relative to the trim of its sails
  • noun a short nail with a sharp point and a large head

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lay

  • noun a narrative song with a recurrent refrain
    ballad.
  • noun a narrative poem of popular origin
    ballad.

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capitalize

  • verb draw advantages from
    take advantage; capitalise.
    • he is capitalizing on her mistake
    • she took advantage of his absence to meet her lover
  • verb supply with capital, as of a business by using a combination of capital used by investors and debt capital provided by lenders
    capitalise.

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misapprehend

  • verb interpret in the wrong way
    misinterpret; misunderstand; misconceive; be amiss; misconstrue.
    • Don't misinterpret my comments as criticism
    • She misconstrued my remarks

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man

  • noun an adult person who is male (as opposed to a woman)
    adult male.
    • there were two women and six men on the bus
  • noun someone who serves in the armed forces; a member of a military force
    military man; serviceman; military personnel.
    • two men stood sentry duty

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usurper

  • noun one who wrongfully or illegally seizes and holds the place of another
    supplanter.

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short

  • noun the location on a baseball field where the shortstop is stationed
  • noun accidental contact between two points in an electric circuit that have a potential difference
    short circuit.

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memorize

  • verb commit to memory; learn by heart
    learn; memorise; con.
    • Have you memorized your lines for the play yet?

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correlate

  • noun either of two or more related or complementary variables
    correlative.
  • verb to bear a reciprocal or mutual relation
    • Do these facts correlate?

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capitalise

  • verb supply with capital, as of a business by using a combination of capital used by investors and debt capital provided by lenders
    capitalize.
  • verb draw advantages from
    capitalize; take advantage.
    • he is capitalizing on her mistake
    • she took advantage of his absence to meet her lover

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backup

  • noun an accumulation caused by clogging or a stoppage
    • a traffic backup on the main street
    • he discovered a backup in the toilet
  • noun someone who takes the place of another (as when things get dangerous or difficult)
    stand-in; fill-in; substitute; relief; reliever; backup man.
    • the star had a stand-in for dangerous scenes
    • we need extra employees for summer fill-ins

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appreciate

  • verb recognize with gratitude; be grateful for
  • verb be fully aware of; realize fully
    take account.
    • Do you appreciate the full meaning of this letter?

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work_out

  • verb come up with
    work up.
    • His colleagues worked out his interesting idea
    • We worked up an ad for our client
  • verb happen in a certain way, leading to, producing, or resulting in a certain outcome, often well
    • Things worked out in an interesting way
    • Not everything worked out in the end and we were disappointed

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think

  • noun an instance of deliberate thinking
    • I need to give it a good think
  • verb judge or regard; look upon; judge
    conceive; believe; consider.
    • I think he is very smart
    • I believe her to be very smart
    • I think that he is her boyfriend
    • The racist conceives such people to be inferior

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switch

  • noun control consisting of a mechanical or electrical or electronic device for making or breaking or changing the connections in a circuit
    electric switch; electrical switch.
  • noun an event in which one thing is substituted for another
    replacement; transposition; permutation; substitution.
    • the replacement of lost blood by a transfusion of donor blood

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cognise

  • verb be cognizant or aware of a fact or a specific piece of information; possess knowledge or information about
    know; cognize.
    • I know that the President lied to the people
    • I want to know who is winning the game!
    • I know it's time

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pay

  • noun something that remunerates
    wage; earnings; salary; remuneration.
    • wages were paid by check
    • he wasted his pay on drink
    • they saved a quarter of all their earnings
  • verb give money, usually in exchange for goods or services
    • I paid four dollars for this sandwich
    • Pay the waitress, please

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offend

  • verb cause to feel resentment or indignation
    pique.
    • Her tactless remark offended me
  • verb act in disregard of laws, rules, contracts, or promises
    go against; infract; violate; break; breach; transgress.
    • offend all laws of humanity
    • violate the basic laws or human civilization
    • break a law
    • break a promise

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lay_out

  • verb lay out orderly or logically in a line or as if in a line
    range; array; set out.
    • lay out the clothes
    • lay out the arguments
  • verb get ready for a particular purpose or event
    set; set up.
    • set up an experiment
    • set the table
    • lay out the tools for the surgery

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dream

  • noun a series of mental images and emotions occurring during sleep
    dreaming.
    • I had a dream about you last night
  • noun imaginative thoughts indulged in while awake
    dreaming.
    • he lives in a dream that has nothing to do with reality

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retrieval

  • noun (computer science) the operation of accessing information from the computer's memory
  • noun the cognitive operation of accessing information in memory
    • my retrieval of people's names is very poor

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semantic

  • adjective of or relating to meaning or the study of meaning
    • semantic analysis

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ignite

  • verb cause to start burning; subject to fire or great heat
    light.
    • Great heat can ignite almost any dry matter
    • Light a cigarette
  • verb start to burn or burst into flames
    catch fire; take fire; combust; erupt; conflagrate.
    • Marsh gases ignited suddenly
    • The oily rags combusted spontaneously

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theme

  • noun the subject matter of a conversation or discussion
    topic; subject.
    • he didn't want to discuss that subject
    • it was a very sensitive topic
    • his letters were always on the theme of love
  • noun a unifying idea that is a recurrent element in literary or artistic work
    motif.
    • it was the usual `boy gets girl' theme

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devote

  • verb give entirely to a specific person, activity, or cause
    commit; consecrate; dedicate; give.
    • She committed herself to the work of God
    • give one's talents to a good cause
    • consecrate your life to the church
  • verb dedicate
    pay; give.
    • give thought to
    • give priority to
    • pay attention to

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over

  • noun (cricket) the division of play during which six balls are bowled at the batsman by one player from the other team from the same end of the pitch
  • adjective satellite having come or been brought to a conclusion
    concluded; terminated; complete; ended; all over.
    • the harvesting was complete
    • the affair is over, ended, finished
    • the abruptly terminated interview

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trade

  • noun the commercial exchange (buying and selling on domestic or international markets) of goods and services
    • Venice was an important center of trade with the East
    • they are accused of conspiring to constrain trade
  • noun the skilled practice of a practical occupation
    craft.
    • he learned his trade as an apprentice

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course

  • noun education imparted in a series of lessons or meetings
    course of study; course of instruction; class.
    • he took a course in basket weaving
    • flirting is not unknown in college classes
  • noun a connected series of events or actions or developments
    line.
    • the government took a firm course
    • historians can only point out those lines for which evidence is available

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preempt

  • noun a high bid that is intended to prevent the opposing players from bidding
    pre-empt; preemptive bid.
  • verb acquire for oneself before others can do so

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shake

  • noun building material used as siding or roofing
    shingle.
  • noun frothy drink of milk and flavoring and sometimes fruit or ice cream
    milk shake; milkshake.

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envisage

  • verb form a mental image of something that is not present or that is not the case
    conceive of; ideate; imagine.
    • Can you conceive of him as the president?

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ponder

  • verb reflect deeply on a subject
    ruminate; mull; muse; think over; reflect; contemplate; meditate; chew over; mull over; excogitate; speculate.
    • I mulled over the events of the afternoon
    • philosophers have speculated on the question of God for thousands of years
    • The scientist must stop to observe and start to excogitate

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derive

  • verb reason by deduction; establish by deduction
    deduce; deduct; infer.
  • verb obtain
    gain.
    • derive pleasure from one's garden

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personal

  • noun a short newspaper article about a particular person or group
  • adjective concerning or affecting a particular person or his or her private life and personality
    • a personal favor
    • for your personal use
    • personal papers
    • I have something personal to tell you
    • a personal God
    • he has his personal bank account and she has hers

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hang_in

  • verb be persistent, refuse to stop
    persevere; hold on; hang on; persist.
    • he persisted to call me every night
    • The child persisted and kept asking questions

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rote_learning

  • noun memorization by repetition
    rote.

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supersede

  • verb take the place or move into the position of
    supercede; supplant; supervene upon; replace.
    • Smith replaced Miller as CEO after Miller left
    • the computer has supplanted the slide rule
    • Mary replaced Susan as the team's captain and the highest-ranked player in the school

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conjugation

  • noun the state of being joined together
    colligation; conjunction; junction.
  • noun the inflection of verbs

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persist

  • verb continue to exist
    run; die hard; prevail; endure.
    • These stories die hard
    • The legend of Elvis endures
  • verb be persistent, refuse to stop
    persevere; hold on; hang on; hang in.
    • he persisted to call me every night
    • The child persisted and kept asking questions

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take_in

  • verb provide with shelter
  • verb fool or hoax
    fool; put on; gull; dupe; befool; put one over; cod; put one across; slang.
    • The immigrant was duped because he trusted everyone
    • You can't fool me!

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puzzle

  • noun a particularly baffling problem that is said to have a correct solution
    puzzler; mystifier; teaser.
    • he loved to solve chessmate puzzles
    • that's a real puzzler
  • noun a game that tests your ingenuity

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overcome

  • verb win a victory over
    get the better of; defeat.
    • You must overcome all difficulties
    • defeat your enemies
    • He overcame his shyness
    • He overcame his infirmity
    • Her anger got the better of her and she blew up
  • verb get on top of; deal with successfully
    get over; master; subdue; surmount.
    • He overcame his shyness

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interrelate

  • verb be in a relationship with
    relate.
    • How are these two observations related?
  • verb place into a mutual relationship
    • I cannot interrelate these two events

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junction

  • noun the place where two or more things come together
  • noun the state of being joined together
    colligation; conjunction; conjugation.

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swot_up

  • verb study intensively, as before an exam
    drum; grind away; bone up; get up; bone; cram; mug up; swot.
    • I had to bone up on my Latin verbs before the final exam

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spell

  • noun a psychological state induced by (or as if induced by) a magical incantation
    enchantment; trance.
  • noun a time for working (after which you will be relieved by someone else)
    go; turn; tour.
    • it's my go
    • a spell of work

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launder

  • verb cleanse with a cleaning agent, such as soap, and water
    wash.
    • Wash the towels, please!
  • verb convert illegally obtained funds into legal ones

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break

  • noun some abrupt occurrence that interrupts an ongoing activity
    interruption.
    • the telephone is an annoying interruption
    • there was a break in the action when a player was hurt
  • noun an unexpected piece of good luck
    good luck; happy chance.
    • he finally got his big break

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mention

  • noun a remark that calls attention to something or someone
    reference.
    • she made frequent mention of her promotion
    • there was no mention of it
    • the speaker made several references to his wife
  • noun a short note recognizing a source of information or of a quoted passage
    acknowledgment; reference; citation; credit; cite; quotation.
    • the student's essay failed to list several important citations
    • the acknowledgments are usually printed at the front of a book
    • the article includes mention of similar clinical cases

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memorialize

  • verb address in a memorial
    memorialise.
    • The President memorialized the heroes of the battle
  • verb be or provide a memorial to a person or an event
    immortalize; memorialise; commemorate; record; immortalise.
    • This sculpture commemorates the victims of the concentration camps
    • We memorialized the Dead

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itemise

  • verb place on a list of items
    itemize.
    • itemize one's tax deductions
  • verb specify individually
    recite; itemize; enumerate.
    • She enumerated the many obstacles she had encountered
    • The doctor recited the list of possible side effects of the drug

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recap

  • noun a summary at the end that repeats the substance of a longer discussion
    review; recapitulation.
  • noun a used automobile tire that has been remolded to give it new treads
    retread.

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cogitation

  • noun a carefully considered thought about something
    • his cogitations were dutifully recorded in his daybook
  • noun attentive consideration and meditation
    study.
    • after much cogitation he rejected the offer

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association

  • noun a formal organization of people or groups of people
    • he joined the Modern Language Association
  • noun the act of consorting with or joining with others
    • you cannot be convicted of criminal guilt by association

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term

  • noun a word or expression used for some particular thing
    • he learned many medical terms
  • noun a limited period of time
    • a prison term
    • he left school before the end of term

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name

  • noun a language unit by which a person or thing is known
    • his name really is George Washington
    • those are two names for the same thing
  • noun a person's reputation
    • he wanted to protect his good name

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opine

  • verb express one's opinion openly and without fear or hesitation
    speak up; animadvert; sound off; speak out.
    • John spoke up at the meeting
  • verb expect, believe, or suppose
    guess; reckon; suppose; imagine; think.
    • I imagine she earned a lot of money with her new novel
    • I thought to find her in a bad state
    • he didn't think to find her in the kitchen
    • I guess she is angry at me for standing her up

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stick_to

  • verb stick to firmly
    bind; hold fast; adhere; stick; bond.
    • Will this wallpaper adhere to the wall?
  • verb keep to
    stick with; follow.
    • Stick to your principles
    • stick to the diet

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refresh

  • verb refresh one's memory
    brush up; review.
    • I reviewed the material before the test
  • verb make (to feel) fresh
    freshen.
    • The cool water refreshed us

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immortalise

  • verb be or provide a memorial to a person or an event
    immortalize; memorialise; commemorate; record; memorialize.
    • This sculpture commemorates the victims of the concentration camps
    • We memorialized the Dead
  • verb make famous forever
    immortalize; eternalize; eternalise; eternize; eternise.
    • This melody immortalized its composer

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woolgather

  • verb have a daydream; indulge in a fantasy
    stargaze; dream; daydream.

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grind_away

  • verb study intensively, as before an exam
    drum; swot up; bone up; get up; bone; cram; mug up; swot.
    • I had to bone up on my Latin verbs before the final exam

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bone

  • noun rigid connective tissue that makes up the skeleton of vertebrates
    os.
  • noun the porous calcified substance from which bones are made
    osseous tissue.

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brush

  • noun a dense growth of bushes
    thicket; coppice; brushwood; copse.
  • noun an implement that has hairs or bristles firmly set into a handle

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dour

  • adjective satellite stubbornly unyielding
    tenacious; dogged; persistent; unyielding; pertinacious.
    • dogged persistence
    • dour determination
    • the most vocal and pertinacious of all the critics
    • a mind not gifted to discover truth but tenacious to hold it"- T.S.Eliot
    • men tenacious of opinion
  • adjective satellite harshly uninviting or formidable in manner or appearance
    forbidding; grim.
    • a dour, self-sacrificing life
    • a forbidding scowl
    • a grim man loving duty more than humanity
    • undoubtedly the grimmest part of him was his iron claw"- J.M.Barrie

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whim

  • noun a sudden desire
    caprice; impulse.
    • he bought it on an impulse
  • noun an odd or fanciful or capricious idea
    whimsey; notion; whimsy.
    • the theatrical notion of disguise is associated with disaster in his stories
    • he had a whimsy about flying to the moon
    • whimsy can be humorous to someone with time to enjoy it

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retrieve

  • verb get or find back; recover the use of
    regain; recover; find.
    • She regained control of herself
    • She found her voice and replied quickly
  • verb go for and bring back
    • retrieve the car from the parking garage

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reconstructive_memory

  • noun recall that is hypothesized to work by storing abstract features which are then used to construct the memory during recall
    reconstruction.

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displacement

  • noun act of taking the place of another especially using underhanded tactics
    supplanting.
  • noun an event in which something is displaced without rotation
    shift.

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ask_for_it

  • verb persist with actions or an attitude despite the probability that it will cause trouble
    ask for trouble.
    • He is asking for trouble with his behavior

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motor_memory

  • noun your memory for motor skills
    muscle memory.

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book

  • noun a written work or composition that has been published (printed on pages bound together)
    • I am reading a good book on economics
  • noun physical objects consisting of a number of pages bound together
    volume.
    • he used a large book as a doorstop

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connect

  • verb connect, fasten, or put together two or more pieces
    tie; link; link up.
    • Can you connect the two loudspeakers?
    • Tie the ropes together
    • Link arms
  • verb make a logical or causal connection
    tie in; associate; relate; colligate; link; link up.
    • I cannot connect these two pieces of evidence in my mind
    • colligate these facts
    • I cannot relate these events at all

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naming

  • noun the verbal act of naming
    • the part he failed was the naming of state capitals
  • noun the act of putting a person into a non-elective position
    assignment; appointment; designation.
    • the appointment had to be approved by the whole committee

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out

  • noun (baseball) a failure by a batter or runner to reach a base safely in baseball
    • you only get 3 outs per inning
  • verb to state openly and publicly one's homosexuality
    come out of the closet; come out.
    • This actor outed last year

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shame

  • noun a painful emotion resulting from an awareness of inadequacy or guilt
  • noun a state of dishonor
    disgrace; ignominy.
    • one mistake brought shame to all his family
    • suffered the ignominy of being sent to prison

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typecast

  • verb cast repeatedly in the same kind of role
  • verb identify as belonging to a certain type
    type.
    • Such people can practically be typed

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pertinacity

  • noun persistent determination
    perseverance; persistency; tenaciousness; doggedness; tenacity; persistence.

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understudy

  • noun an actor able to replace a regular performer when required
    standby.
  • verb be an understudy or alternate for a role
    alternate.

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commemorative

  • noun an object (such as a coin or postage stamp) made to mark an event or honor a person
  • adjective intended as a commemoration
    commemorating.
    • a commemorative plaque

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extrapolate

  • verb draw from specific cases for more general cases
    generalize; infer; generalise.
  • verb estimate the value of
    interpolate.

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medicine

  • noun the branches of medical science that deal with nonsurgical techniques
    medical specialty.
  • noun (medicine) something that treats or prevents or alleviates the symptoms of disease
    medicament; medication; medicinal drug.

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misidentify

  • verb identify incorrectly
    mistake.
    • Don't mistake her for her twin sister

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induction

  • noun a formal entry into an organization or position or office
    initiation; installation.
    • his initiation into the club
    • he was ordered to report for induction into the army
    • he gave a speech as part of his installation into the hall of fame
  • noun an electrical phenomenon whereby an electromotive force (EMF) is generated in a closed circuit by a change in the flow of current
    inductance.

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strain

  • noun (physics) deformation of a physical body under the action of applied forces
  • noun difficulty that causes worry or emotional tension
    stress.
    • she endured the stresses and strains of life
    • he presided over the economy during the period of the greatest stress and danger"- R.J.Samuelson

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belief

  • noun any cognitive content held as true
  • noun a vague idea in which some confidence is placed
    impression; feeling; opinion; notion.
    • his impression of her was favorable
    • what are your feelings about the crisis?
    • it strengthened my belief in his sincerity
    • I had a feeling that she was lying

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associate

  • noun a person who joins with others in some activity or endeavor
    • he had to consult his associate before continuing
  • noun a friend who is frequently in the company of another
    familiar; comrade; fellow; companion.
    • drinking companions
    • comrades in arms

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upon

On; -- used in all the senses of that word, with which it is interchangeable. "Upon an hill of flowers." Chaucer.
Our host upon his stirrups stood anon. Chaucer.
Thou shalt take of the blood that is upon the altar. Ex. xxix. 21.
The Philistines be upon thee, Samson. Judg. xvi. 9.
As I did stand my watch upon the hill. Shak.
He made a great difference between people that did rebel upon wantonness, and them that did rebel upon want. Bacon.
This advantage we lost upon the invention of firearms. Addison.
Upon the whole, it will be necessary to avoid that perpetual repetition of the same epithets which we find in Homer. Pope.
He had abandoned the frontiers, retiring upon Glasgow. Sir. W. Scott.
Philip swore upon the Evangelists to abstain from aggression in my absence. Landor.
Upon conveys a more distinct notion that on carries with it of something that literally or metaphorically bears or supports. It is less employed than it used to be, on having for the most part taken its place. Some expressions formed with it belong only to old style; as, upon pity they were taken away; that is, in consequence of pity: upon the rate of thirty thousand; that is, amounting to the rate: to die upon the hand; that is, by means of the hand: he had a garment upon; that is, upon himself: the time is coming fast upon; that is, upon the present time. By the omission of its object, upon acquires an adverbial sense, as in the last two examples.

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discompose

  • verb cause to lose one's composure
    untune; upset; disconcert; discomfit.

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free

  • noun people who are free
    free people.
    • the home of the free and the brave
  • verb grant freedom to; free from confinement
    unloosen; unloose; loose; release; liberate.

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disrespect

  • noun an expression of lack of respect
    discourtesy.
  • noun a disrespectful mental attitude

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attending

  • noun the process whereby a person concentrates on some features of the environment to the (relative) exclusion of others
    attention.
  • noun the act of being present (at a meeting or event etc.)
    attendance.

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qualify

  • verb prove capable or fit; meet requirements
    measure up.
  • verb pronounce fit or able
    • She was qualified to run the marathon
    • They nurses were qualified to administer the injections

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conditioning

  • noun a learning process in which an organism's behavior becomes dependent on the occurrence of a stimulus in its environment
  • verb establish a conditioned response
    condition.

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imagine

  • verb form a mental image of something that is not present or that is not the case
    conceive of; envisage; ideate.
    • Can you conceive of him as the president?
  • verb expect, believe, or suppose
    guess; reckon; suppose; opine; think.
    • I imagine she earned a lot of money with her new novel
    • I thought to find her in a bad state
    • he didn't think to find her in the kitchen
    • I guess she is angry at me for standing her up

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ask

  • verb inquire about
    inquire; enquire.
    • I asked about their special today
    • He had to ask directions several times
  • verb make a request or demand for something to somebody
    • She asked him for a loan

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estimate

  • noun an approximate calculation of quantity or degree or worth
    approximation; estimation; idea.
    • an estimate of what it would cost
    • a rough idea how long it would take
  • noun a judgment of the qualities of something or somebody
    estimation.
    • many factors are involved in any estimate of human life
    • in my estimation the boy is innocent

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swop

  • noun an equal exchange
    swap; barter; trade.
    • we had no money so we had to live by barter
  • verb exchange or give (something) in exchange for
    switch; swap; trade.

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inductive

  • adjective arising from inductance
    • inductive reactance
  • adjective of reasoning; proceeding from particular facts to a general conclusion
    • inductive reasoning

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swot

  • noun an insignificant student who is ridiculed as being affected or boringly studious
    wonk; grind; dweeb; nerd.
  • verb study intensively, as before an exam
    drum; grind away; swot up; bone up; get up; bone; cram; mug up.
    • I had to bone up on my Latin verbs before the final exam

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memory_trace

  • noun a postulated biochemical change (presumably in neural tissue) that represents a memory
    engram.

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overtake

  • verb catch up with and possibly overtake
    catch; catch up with.
    • The Rolls Royce caught us near the exit ramp
  • verb travel past
    overhaul; pass.
    • The sports car passed all the trucks

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standby

  • noun something that can be relied on when needed
  • noun an actor able to replace a regular performer when required
    understudy.

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stratify

  • verb divide society into social classes or castes
    • Income distribution often stratifies a society
  • verb form layers or strata
    • The rock stratifies

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keep

  • noun the financial means whereby one lives
    living; support; livelihood; bread and butter; sustenance.
    • each child was expected to pay for their keep
    • he applied to the state for support
    • he could no longer earn his own livelihood
  • noun the main tower within the walls of a medieval castle or fortress
    dungeon; donjon.

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enkindle

  • verb cause to start burning
    inflame; kindle; conflagrate.
    • The setting sun kindled the sky with oranges and reds
  • verb call forth (emotions, feelings, and responses)
    raise; fire; elicit; arouse; evoke; kindle; provoke.
    • arouse pity
    • raise a smile
    • evoke sympathy

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place

  • noun a point located with respect to surface features of some region
    spot; topographic point.
    • this is a nice place for a picnic
    • a bright spot on a planet
  • noun any area set aside for a particular purpose
    property.
    • who owns this place?
    • the president was concerned about the property across from the White House

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etymologise

  • verb give the etymology or derivation or suggest an etymology (for a word)
    etymologize.
    • The linguist probably etymologized the words incorrectly
    • Although he is not trained in this, his hobby is etymologizing
  • verb construct the history of words
    etymologize.

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retain

  • verb hold back within
    • This soil retains water
    • I retain this drug for a long time
    • the dam retains the water
  • verb allow to remain in a place or position or maintain a property or feature
    continue; keep on; keep.
    • We cannot continue several servants any longer
    • She retains a lawyer
    • The family's fortune waned and they could not keep their household staff
    • Our grant has run out and we cannot keep you on
    • We kept the work going as long as we could
    • She retained her composure
    • this garment retains its shape even after many washings

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symbolize

  • verb express indirectly by an image, form, or model; be a symbol
    symbolise; typify; represent; stand for.
    • What does the Statue of Liberty symbolize?
  • verb represent or identify by using a symbol; use symbols
    symbolise.
    • The poet symbolizes love in this poem
    • These painters believed that artists should symbolize

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stimulate

  • verb act as a stimulant
    excite.
    • The book stimulated her imagination
    • This play stimulates
  • verb cause to do; cause to act in a specified manner
    get; make; induce; have; cause.
    • The ads induced me to buy a VCR
    • My children finally got me to buy a computer
    • My wife made me buy a new sofa

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regurgitation

  • noun backflow of blood through a defective heart valve
  • noun recall after rote memorization
    • he complained that school was just memorization and regurgitation

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recite

  • verb recite in elocution
    declaim.
  • verb repeat aloud from memory
    • she recited a poem
    • The pupil recited his lesson for the day

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purport

  • noun the intended meaning of a communication
    intent; spirit.
  • noun the pervading meaning or tenor
    drift.
    • caught the general drift of the conversation

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feel

  • noun an intuitive awareness;
    • he has a feel for animals" or "it's easy when you get the feel of it
  • noun the general atmosphere of a place or situation and the effect that it has on people
    flavour; look; tone; flavor; feeling; smell; spirit.
    • the feel of the city excited him
    • a clergyman improved the tone of the meeting
    • it had the smell of treason

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relate

  • verb make a logical or causal connection
    tie in; associate; colligate; link; connect; link up.
    • I cannot connect these two pieces of evidence in my mind
    • colligate these facts
    • I cannot relate these events at all
  • verb be relevant to
    touch on; pertain; have-to doe with; bear on; touch; come to; refer; concern.
    • There were lots of questions referring to her talk
    • My remark pertained to your earlier comments

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number

  • noun the property possessed by a sum or total or indefinite quantity of units or individuals
    figure.
    • he had a number of chores to do
    • the number of parameters is small
    • the figure was about a thousand
  • noun a concept of quantity involving zero and units
    • every number has a unique position in the sequence

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fancy

  • noun something many people believe that is false
    phantasy; fantasy; illusion.
    • they have the illusion that I am very wealthy
  • noun a kind of imagination that was held by Coleridge to be more casual and superficial than true imagination

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fantasy

  • noun imagination unrestricted by reality
    phantasy.
    • a schoolgirl fantasy
  • noun fiction with a large amount of imagination in it
    phantasy.
    • she made a lot of money writing romantic fantasies

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enumerate

  • verb specify individually
    recite; itemise; itemize.
    • She enumerated the many obstacles she had encountered
    • The doctor recited the list of possible side effects of the drug
  • verb determine the number or amount of
    count; numerate; number.
    • Can you count the books on your shelf?
    • Count your change

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categorize

  • verb place into or assign to a category
    categorise.
    • Children learn early on to categorize

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shake_up

  • verb shock physically
    bump around; jar.
    • Georgia was shaken up in the Tech game
  • verb organize anew
    reorganize; reorganise.
    • We must reorganize the company if we don't want to go under

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illustrate

  • verb clarify by giving an example of
    exemplify; instance.
  • verb depict with an illustration

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interchange

  • noun a junction of highways on different levels that permits traffic to move from one to another without crossing traffic streams
  • noun mutual interaction; the activity of reciprocating or exchanging (especially information)
    reciprocation; give-and-take.

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guess

  • noun a message expressing an opinion based on incomplete evidence
    conjecture; supposition; surmisal; hypothesis; speculation; surmise.
  • noun an estimate based on little or no information
    guesswork; dead reckoning; shot; guessing.

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construct

  • noun an abstract or general idea inferred or derived from specific instances
    concept; conception.
  • verb make by combining materials and parts
    make; build.
    • this little pig made his house out of straw
    • Some eccentric constructed an electric brassiere warmer

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paint

  • noun a substance used as a coating to protect or decorate a surface (especially a mixture of pigment suspended in a liquid); dries to form a hard coating
    pigment.
    • artists use `paint' and `pigment' interchangeably
  • noun (basketball) a space (including the foul line) in front of the basket at each end of a basketball court; usually painted a different color from the rest of the court
    key.
    • he hit a jump shot from the top of the key
    • he dominates play in the paint

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assort

  • verb keep company with; hang out with
    associate; affiliate; consort.
    • He associates with strange people
    • She affiliates with her colleagues
  • verb arrange or order by classes or categories
    sort; separate; sort out; class; classify.
    • How would you classify these pottery shards--are they prehistoric?

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flip-flop

  • noun a decision to reverse an earlier decision
    turnaround; change of mind; reversal; turnabout.
  • noun a backless sandal held to the foot by a thong between the big toe and the second toe
    thong.

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regurgitate

  • verb pour or rush back
    • The blood regurgitates into the heart ventricle
  • verb feed through the beak by regurgitating previously swallowed food
    • many birds feed their young by regurgitating what they have swallowed and carried to the nest

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scheme

  • noun an elaborate and systematic plan of action
    strategy.
  • noun a statement that evades the question by cleverness or trickery
    dodge; dodging.

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cite

  • noun a short note recognizing a source of information or of a quoted passage
    acknowledgment; reference; mention; citation; credit; quotation.
    • the student's essay failed to list several important citations
    • the acknowledgments are usually printed at the front of a book
    • the article includes mention of similar clinical cases
  • verb make reference to
    name; bring up; advert; mention; refer.
    • His name was mentioned in connection with the invention

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glimmer

  • noun a flash of light (especially reflected light)
    gleam; gleaming.
  • noun a slight suggestion or vague understanding
    glimmering; intimation; inkling.
    • he had no inkling what was about to happen

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acquire

  • verb come into the possession of something concrete or abstract
    get.
    • She got a lot of paintings from her uncle
    • They acquired a new pet
    • Get your results the next day
    • Get permission to take a few days off from work
  • verb take on a certain form, attribute, or aspect
    assume; take on; take; adopt.
    • His voice took on a sad tone
    • The story took a new turn
    • he adopted an air of superiority
    • She assumed strange manners
    • The gods assume human or animal form in these fables

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immediate

  • adjective satellite of the present time and place
    • the immediate revisions
  • adjective satellite very close or connected in space or time
    contiguous.
    • contiguous events
    • immediate contact
    • the immediate vicinity
    • the immediate past

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rivet

  • noun ornament consisting of a circular rounded protuberance (as on a vault or shield or belt)
    stud.
  • noun heavy pin having a head at one end and the other end being hammered flat after being passed through holes in the pieces that are fastened together

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screen_memory

  • noun an imagined memory of a childhood experience; hides another memory of distressing significance

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part

  • noun something determined in relation to something that includes it
    component part; portion; component; constituent.
    • he wanted to feel a part of something bigger than himself
    • I read a portion of the manuscript
    • the smaller component is hard to reach
    • the animal constituent of plankton
  • noun something less than the whole of a human artifact
    portion.
    • the rear part of the house
    • glue the two parts together

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differentiate

  • verb mark as different
    secernate; severalise; separate; severalize; tell apart; distinguish; tell; secern.
    • We distinguish several kinds of maple
  • verb be a distinctive feature, attribute, or trait; sometimes in a very positive sense
    distinguish; mark.
    • His modesty distinguishes him from his peers

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review

  • noun a new appraisal or evaluation
    reappraisal; reassessment; revaluation.
  • noun an essay or article that gives a critical evaluation (as of a book or play)
    critique; critical review; review article.

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believe

  • verb accept as true; take to be true
    • I believed his report
    • We didn't believe his stories from the War
    • She believes in spirits
  • verb judge or regard; look upon; judge
    conceive; think; consider.
    • I think he is very smart
    • I believe her to be very smart
    • I think that he is her boyfriend
    • The racist conceives such people to be inferior

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reliever

  • noun someone who takes the place of another (as when things get dangerous or difficult)
    stand-in; fill-in; substitute; relief; backup; backup man.
    • the star had a stand-in for dangerous scenes
    • we need extra employees for summer fill-ins
  • noun a person who reduces the intensity (e.g., of fears) and calms and pacifies
    comforter; allayer.
    • a reliever of anxiety
    • an allayer of fears

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outline

  • noun the line that appears to bound an object
    lineation.
  • noun a sketchy summary of the main points of an argument or theory
    precis; synopsis; abstract.

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double

  • noun a base hit on which the batter stops safely at second base
    two-base hit; two-baser; two-bagger.
    • he hit a double to deep centerfield
  • noun a stand-in for movie stars to perform dangerous stunts
    stunt man; stunt woman.
    • his first job in Hollywood was as a double for Clark Gable

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rationalize

  • verb defend, explain, clear away, or make excuses for by reasoning
    apologise; rationalise; excuse; apologize; justify.
    • rationalize the child's seemingly crazy behavior
    • he rationalized his lack of success
  • verb weed out unwanted or unnecessary things
    rationalise; cut; prune.
    • We had to lose weight, so we cut the sugar from our diet

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deputise

  • verb act as a substitute
    step in; deputize; substitute.
    • She stood in for the soprano who suffered from a cold
  • verb appoint as a substitute
    depute; deputize.

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project

  • noun any piece of work that is undertaken or attempted
    undertaking; task; labor.
    • he prepared for great undertakings
  • noun a planned undertaking
    projection.

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reproduction

  • noun the process of generating offspring
  • noun recall that is hypothesized to work by storing the original stimulus input and reproducing it during recall
    reproductive memory.

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kindle

  • verb catch fire
    inflame.
    • The dried grass of the prairie kindled, spreading the flames for miles
  • verb cause to start burning
    inflame; enkindle; conflagrate.
    • The setting sun kindled the sky with oranges and reds

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feeling

  • noun the experiencing of affective and emotional states
    • she had a feeling of euphoria
    • he had terrible feelings of guilt
    • I disliked him and the feeling was mutual
  • noun a vague idea in which some confidence is placed
    impression; belief; opinion; notion.
    • his impression of her was favorable
    • what are your feelings about the crisis?
    • it strengthened my belief in his sincerity
    • I had a feeling that she was lying

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misunderstand

  • verb interpret in the wrong way
    misinterpret; misconceive; be amiss; misconstrue; misapprehend.
    • Don't misinterpret my comments as criticism
    • She misconstrued my remarks

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stargaze

  • verb observe the stars
  • verb have a daydream; indulge in a fantasy
    woolgather; dream; daydream.

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unrelenting

  • adjective satellite not to be placated or appeased or moved by entreaty
    inexorable; unappeasable; relentless; stern; unforgiving; grim.
    • grim determination
    • grim necessity
    • Russia's final hour, it seemed, approached with inexorable certainty
    • relentless persecution
    • the stern demands of parenthood
  • adjective satellite harsh
    brutal.
    • the brutal summer sun
    • a brutal winter

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function

  • noun (mathematics) a mathematical relation such that each element of a given set (the domain of the function) is associated with an element of another set (the range of the function)
    single-valued function; mathematical function; mapping; map.
  • noun what something is used for
    use; role; purpose.
    • the function of an auger is to bore holes
    • ballet is beautiful but what use is it?

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chew_over

  • verb reflect deeply on a subject
    ponder; ruminate; mull; muse; think over; reflect; contemplate; meditate; mull over; excogitate; speculate.
    • I mulled over the events of the afternoon
    • philosophers have speculated on the question of God for thousands of years
    • The scientist must stop to observe and start to excogitate

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generality

  • noun an idea or conclusion having general application
    generalisation; generalization.
    • he spoke in broad generalities
  • noun the quality of being general or widespread or having general applicability

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come_after

  • verb come after in time, as a result
    follow.
    • A terrible tsunami followed the earthquake
  • verb be the successor (of)
    succeed; follow.
    • Carter followed Ford
    • Will Charles succeed to the throne?

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upset

  • noun an unhappy and worried mental state
    perturbation; disturbance.
    • there was too much anger and disturbance
    • she didn't realize the upset she caused me
  • noun the act of disturbing the mind or body
    overthrow; derangement.
    • his carelessness could have caused an ecological upset
    • she was unprepared for this sudden overthrow of their normal way of living

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generalization

  • noun reasoning from detailed facts to general principles
    generalisation; induction; inductive reasoning.
  • noun an idea or conclusion having general application
    generalisation; generality.
    • he spoke in broad generalities

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seed

  • noun a small hard fruit
  • noun a mature fertilized plant ovule consisting of an embryo and its food source and having a protective coat or testa

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doggedness

  • noun persistent determination
    perseverance; persistency; tenaciousness; tenacity; pertinacity; persistence.

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have

  • noun a person who possesses great material wealth
    rich person; wealthy person.
  • verb have or possess, either in a concrete or an abstract sense
    hold; have got.
    • She has $1,000 in the bank
    • He has got two beautiful daughters
    • She holds a Master's degree from Harvard

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anger

  • noun a strong emotion; a feeling that is oriented toward some real or supposed grievance
    choler; ire.
  • noun the state of being angry
    angriness.

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fire_up

  • verb arouse or excite feelings and passions
    ignite; stir up; inflame; heat; wake.
    • The ostentatious way of living of the rich ignites the hatred of the poor
    • The refugees' fate stirred up compassion around the world
    • Wake old feelings of hatred
  • verb begin to smoke
    light; light up.
    • After the meal, some of the diners lit up

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tell_apart

  • verb detect with the senses
    recognize; spot; make out; recognise; distinguish; pick out; discern.
    • The fleeing convicts were picked out of the darkness by the watchful prison guards
    • I can't make out the faces in this photograph
  • verb mark as different
    secernate; severalise; separate; severalize; differentiate; distinguish; tell; secern.
    • We distinguish several kinds of maple

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persistency

  • noun persistent determination
    perseverance; tenaciousness; doggedness; tenacity; pertinacity; persistence.

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ratiocinate

  • verb reason methodologically and logically

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touch_a_chord

  • verb evoke a reaction, response, or emotion
    strike a chord.
    • this writer strikes a chord with young women
    • The storyteller touched a chord

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schematize

  • verb formulate in regular order; to reduce to a scheme or formula
    • The chemists schematized the various reactions in a coherent fashion
  • verb give conventional form to
    schematise.
    • some art forms schematise designs into geometrical patterns

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arrogate

  • verb demand as being one's due or property; assert one's right or title to
    claim; lay claim.
    • He claimed his suitcases at the airline counter
    • Mr. Smith claims special tax exemptions because he is a foreign resident
  • verb make undue claims to having
    assign.

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plug_away

  • verb work doggedly or persistently
    keep one's shoulder to the wheel; peg away; slog; keep one's nose to the grindstone.
    • She keeps plugging away at her dissertation
  • verb persist in working hard
    plug.
    • Students must plug away at this problem

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note

  • noun a brief written record
    • he made a note of the appointment
  • noun a short personal letter
    line; billet; short letter.
    • drop me a line when you get there

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instance

  • noun an occurrence of something
    case; example.
    • it was a case of bad judgment
    • another instance occurred yesterday
    • but there is always the famous example of the Smiths
  • noun an item of information that is typical of a class or group
    example; illustration; representative.
    • this patient provides a typical example of the syndrome
    • there is an example on page 10

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ideal

  • noun the idea of something that is perfect; something that one hopes to attain
  • noun model of excellence or perfection of a kind; one having no equal
    nonesuch; nonsuch; paragon; apotheosis; saint; nonpareil.

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idealization

  • noun a portrayal of something as ideal
    idealisation; glorification.
    • the idealization of rural life was very misleading
  • noun (psychiatry) a defense mechanism that splits something you are ambivalent about into two representations--one good and one bad
    idealisation.

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hatch

  • noun the production of young from an egg
    hatching.
  • noun shading consisting of multiple crossing lines
    crosshatch; hachure; hatching.

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persistence

  • noun the property of a continuous and connected period of time
    continuity.
  • noun persistent determination
    perseverance; persistency; tenaciousness; doggedness; tenacity; pertinacity.

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prick

  • noun insulting terms of address for people who are stupid or irritating or ridiculous
    mother fucker; bastard; SOB; motherfucker; whoreson; dickhead; son of a bitch; asshole; cocksucker; shit.
  • noun a depression scratched or carved into a surface
    scratch; slit; incision; dent.

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trace

  • noun a just detectable amount
    suggestion; hint.
    • he speaks French with a trace of an accent
  • noun an indication that something has been present
    vestige; shadow; tincture.
    • there wasn't a trace of evidence for the claim
    • a tincture of condescension

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centre

  • noun an area that is approximately central within some larger region
    heart; middle; eye; center.
    • it is in the center of town
    • they ran forward into the heart of the struggle
    • they were in the eye of the storm
  • noun a low-lying region in central France

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reckon

  • verb expect, believe, or suppose
    guess; suppose; imagine; opine; think.
    • I imagine she earned a lot of money with her new novel
    • I thought to find her in a bad state
    • he didn't think to find her in the kitchen
    • I guess she is angry at me for standing her up
  • verb judge to be probable
    calculate; figure; forecast; estimate; count on.

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cipher

  • noun a message written in a secret code
    cypher.
  • noun a mathematical element that when added to another number yields the same number
    0; zero; nought; cypher.

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connected

  • adjective satellite being joined in close association
    affiliated; attached.
    • affiliated clubs
    • all art schools whether independent or attached to universities
  • verb connect, fasten, or put together two or more pieces
    tie; link; connect; link up.
    • Can you connect the two loudspeakers?
    • Tie the ropes together
    • Link arms

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plan

  • noun a series of steps to be carried out or goals to be accomplished
    program; programme.
    • they drew up a six-step plan
    • they discussed plans for a new bond issue
  • noun an arrangement scheme
    design.
    • the awkward design of the keyboard made operation difficult
    • it was an excellent design for living
    • a plan for seating guests

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class

  • noun a collection of things sharing a common attribute
    category; family.
    • there are two classes of detergents
  • noun a body of students who are taught together
    grade; course; form.
    • early morning classes are always sleepy

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tie_in

  • verb be in connection with something relevant
    • This ties in closely with his earlier remarks
  • verb make a logical or causal connection
    associate; relate; colligate; link; connect; link up.
    • I cannot connect these two pieces of evidence in my mind
    • colligate these facts
    • I cannot relate these events at all

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be_amiss

  • verb interpret in the wrong way
    misinterpret; misunderstand; misconceive; misconstrue; misapprehend.
    • Don't misinterpret my comments as criticism
    • She misconstrued my remarks

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muscle

  • noun one of the contractile organs of the body
    musculus.
  • noun animal tissue consisting predominantly of contractile cells
    muscular tissue.

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muscle_memory

  • noun your memory for motor skills
    motor memory.

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bone_up

  • verb study intensively, as before an exam
    drum; grind away; swot up; get up; bone; cram; mug up; swot.
    • I had to bone up on my Latin verbs before the final exam

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gather

  • noun sewing consisting of small folds or puckers made by pulling tight a thread in a line of stitching
    gathering.
  • noun the act of gathering something
    gathering.

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cover

  • noun a covering that serves to conceal or shelter something
    concealment; covert; screen.
    • a screen of trees afforded privacy
    • under cover of darkness
    • the brush provided a covert for game
    • the simplest concealment is to match perfectly the color of the background
  • noun bedding that keeps a person warm in bed
    blanket.
    • he pulled the covers over his head and went to sleep

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drive

  • noun the act of applying force to propel something
    thrust; driving force.
    • after reaching the desired velocity the drive is cut off
  • noun a mechanism by which force or power is transmitted in a machine
    • a variable speed drive permitted operation through a range of speeds

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dimension

  • noun the magnitude of something in a particular direction (especially length or width or height)
  • noun a construct whereby objects or individuals can be distinguished
    attribute; property.
    • self-confidence is not an endearing property

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whelm

  • verb overcome, as with emotions or perceptual stimuli
    overtake; overwhelm; overpower; overcome; sweep over.

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talk

  • noun an exchange of ideas via conversation
    talking.
    • let's have more work and less talk around here
  • noun discussion; (`talk about' is a less formal alternative for `discussion of')
    • his poetry contains much talk about love and anger

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whimsey

  • noun an odd or fanciful or capricious idea
    whim; notion; whimsy.
    • the theatrical notion of disguise is associated with disaster in his stories
    • he had a whimsy about flying to the moon
    • whimsy can be humorous to someone with time to enjoy it
  • noun the trait of acting unpredictably and more from whim or caprice than from reason or judgment
    arbitrariness; whimsy; whimsicality; capriciousness; flightiness.
    • I despair at the flightiness and whimsicality of my memory

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notion

  • noun a vague idea in which some confidence is placed
    impression; feeling; belief; opinion.
    • his impression of her was favorable
    • what are your feelings about the crisis?
    • it strengthened my belief in his sincerity
    • I had a feeling that she was lying
  • noun a general inclusive concept

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reserve

  • noun formality and propriety of manner
    modesty.
  • noun something kept back or saved for future use or a special purpose
    stockpile; backlog.

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impression

  • noun a vague idea in which some confidence is placed
    feeling; belief; opinion; notion.
    • his impression of her was favorable
    • what are your feelings about the crisis?
    • it strengthened my belief in his sincerity
    • I had a feeling that she was lying
  • noun an outward appearance
    effect.
    • he made a good impression
    • I wanted to create an impression of success
    • she retained that bold effect in her reproductions of the original painting

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confabulation

  • noun an informal conversation
    confab; schmoose; chat; schmooze.
  • noun (psychiatry) a plausible but imagined memory that fills in gaps in what is remembered

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shot

  • noun the act of firing a projectile
    shooting.
    • his shooting was slow but accurate
  • noun a solid missile discharged from a firearm
    pellet.
    • the shot buzzed past his ear

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inspire

  • verb heighten or intensify
    invigorate; enliven; animate; exalt.
    • These paintings exalt the imagination
  • verb supply the inspiration for
    • The article about the artist inspired the exhibition of his recent work

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idealisation

  • noun (psychiatry) a defense mechanism that splits something you are ambivalent about into two representations--one good and one bad
    idealization.
  • noun something that exists only as an idea
    idealization.

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syllogize

  • verb reason by syllogisms
    syllogise.

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stand_in

  • verb be a substitute
    fill in; sub; substitute.
    • The young teacher had to substitute for the sick colleague
    • The skim milk substitutes for cream--we are on a strict diet

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dissociate

  • verb part; cease or break association with
    divorce; disjoint; disassociate; disunite.
    • She disassociated herself from the organization when she found out the identity of the president
  • verb regard as unconnected
    decouple.
    • you must dissociate these two events!
    • decouple our foreign policy from ideology

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bring

  • verb take something or somebody with oneself somewhere
    take; convey.
    • Bring me the box from the other room
    • Take these letters to the boss
    • This brings me to the main point
  • verb cause to come into a particular state or condition
    • Long hard years of on the job training had brought them to their competence
    • bring water to the boiling point

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lettered

  • adjective satellite highly educated; having extensive information or understanding
    knowing; knowledgeable; well-read; learned; well-educated.
    • knowing instructors
    • a knowledgeable critic
    • a knowledgeable audience
  • verb win an athletic letter
    letter.

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gauge

  • noun a measuring instrument for measuring and indicating a quantity such as the thickness of wire or the amount of rain etc.
    gage.
  • noun accepted or approved instance or example of a quantity or quality against which others are judged or measured or compared
    standard of measurement.

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connective

  • noun an uninflected function word that serves to conjoin words or phrases or clauses or sentences
    continuative; conjunction; conjunctive.
  • noun an instrumentality that connects
    connector; connection; connexion; connecter.
    • he soldered the connection
    • he didn't have the right connector between the amplifier and the speakers

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substituting

  • noun working as a substitute for someone who is ill or on leave of absence
    subbing.
  • verb put in the place of another; switch seemingly equivalent items
    interchange; exchange; substitute; replace.
    • the con artist replaced the original with a fake Rembrandt
    • substitute regular milk with fat-free milk
    • synonyms can be interchanged without a changing the context's meaning

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talker_identification

  • noun identification of a person from the sound of their voice
    speaker identification.

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find

  • noun a productive insight
    breakthrough; discovery.
  • noun the act of discovering something
    uncovering; discovery.

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ground

  • noun the solid part of the earth's surface
    dry land; land; terra firma; earth; solid ground.
    • the plane turned away from the sea and moved back over land
    • the earth shook for several minutes
    • he dropped the logs on the ground
  • noun a rational motive for a belief or action
    reason.
    • the reason that war was declared
    • the grounds for their declaration

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reek

  • noun a distinctive odor that is offensively unpleasant
    foetor; stink; fetor; malodor; mephitis; malodour; stench.
  • verb have an element suggestive (of something)
    smack; smell.
    • his speeches smacked of racism
    • this passage smells of plagiarism

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get_up

  • verb rise to one's feet
    stand up; rise; uprise; arise.
    • The audience got up and applauded
  • verb get up and out of bed
    rise; turn out; uprise; arise.
    • I get up at 7 A.M. every day
    • They rose early
    • He uprose at night

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spite

  • noun feeling a need to see others suffer
    spitefulness; maliciousness; malice; venom.
  • noun malevolence by virtue of being malicious or spiteful or nasty
    spitefulness; cattiness; bitchiness; nastiness.

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treasure

  • noun accumulated wealth in the form of money or jewels etc.
    hoarded wealth.
    • the pirates hid their treasure on a small island in the West Indies
  • noun art highly prized for its beauty or perfection
    gem.

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reminisce

  • verb recall the past
    • The grandparents sat there, reminiscing all afternoon

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mug_up

  • verb study intensively, as before an exam
    drum; grind away; swot up; bone up; get up; bone; cram; swot.
    • I had to bone up on my Latin verbs before the final exam

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stand

  • noun a support or foundation
    pedestal; base.
    • the base of the lamp
  • noun the position where a thing or person stands

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believing

  • noun the cognitive process that leads to convictions
    • seeing is believing
  • verb accept as true; take to be true
    believe.
    • I believed his report
    • We didn't believe his stories from the War
    • She believes in spirits

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announce

  • verb make known; make an announcement
    denote.
    • She denoted her feelings clearly
  • verb announce publicly or officially
    declare.
    • The President declared war

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hit

  • noun (baseball) a successful stroke in an athletic contest (especially in baseball)
    • he came all the way around on Williams' hit
  • noun the act of contacting one thing with another
    hitting; striking.
    • repeated hitting raised a large bruise
    • after three misses she finally got a hit

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get

  • noun a return on a shot that seemed impossible to reach and would normally have resulted in a point for the opponent
  • verb come into the possession of something concrete or abstract
    acquire.
    • She got a lot of paintings from her uncle
    • They acquired a new pet
    • Get your results the next day
    • Get permission to take a few days off from work

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disconcert

  • verb cause to feel embarrassment
    flurry; confuse; put off.
    • The constant attention of the young man confused her
  • verb cause to lose one's composure
    untune; discompose; upset; discomfit.

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smell

  • noun the sensation that results when olfactory receptors in the nose are stimulated by particular chemicals in gaseous form
    odour; odor; olfactory perception; olfactory sensation.
    • she loved the smell of roses
  • noun any property detected by the olfactory system
    scent; odor; odour; aroma; olfactory property.

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bear

  • noun massive plantigrade carnivorous or omnivorous mammals with long shaggy coats and strong claws
  • noun an investor with a pessimistic market outlook; an investor who expects prices to fall and so sells now in order to buy later at a lower price

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generalise

  • verb speak or write in generalities
    generalize.
  • verb draw from specific cases for more general cases
    extrapolate; generalize; infer.

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meditate

  • verb reflect deeply on a subject
    ponder; ruminate; mull; muse; think over; reflect; contemplate; chew over; mull over; excogitate; speculate.
    • I mulled over the events of the afternoon
    • philosophers have speculated on the question of God for thousands of years
    • The scientist must stop to observe and start to excogitate
  • verb think intently and at length, as for spiritual purposes
    contemplate; study.
    • He is meditating in his study

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syllogise

  • verb reason by syllogisms
    syllogize.

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speaker_identification

  • noun identification of a person from the sound of their voice
    talker identification.

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reconstruct

  • verb reassemble mentally
    construct; retrace.
    • reconstruct the events of 20 years ago
  • verb build again
    rebuild.
    • The house was rebuild after it was hit by a bomb

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conjunction

  • noun the temporal property of two things happening at the same time
    concurrence; co-occurrence; coincidence.
    • the interval determining the coincidence gate is adjustable
  • noun the state of being joined together
    colligation; junction; conjugation.

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recapitulate

  • verb summarize briefly
    recap.
    • Let's recapitulate the main ideas
  • verb repeat stages of evolutionary development during the embryonic phase of life

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free-associate

  • verb associate freely
    • Let's associate freely to bring up old memories

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secondary

  • noun the defensive football players who line up behind the linemen
  • noun coil such that current is induced in it by passing a current through the primary coil
    secondary coil; secondary winding.

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hold_on

  • verb hold firmly
    grasp.
  • verb stop and wait, as if awaiting further instructions or developments
    stop.
    • Hold on a moment!

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reproductive

  • adjective satellite producing new life or offspring
    generative; procreative.
    • the reproductive potential of a species is its relative capacity to reproduce itself under optimal conditions
    • the reproductive or generative organs

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brain

  • noun that part of the central nervous system that includes all the higher nervous centers; enclosed within the skull; continuous with the spinal cord
    encephalon.
  • noun mental ability
    mental capacity; learning ability; mentality; brainpower; wit.
    • he's got plenty of brains but no common sense

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assimilate

  • verb take up mentally
    absorb; take in; ingest.
    • he absorbed the knowledge or beliefs of his tribe
  • verb become similar to one's environment
    • Immigrants often want to assimilate quickly

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transposition

  • noun any abnormal position of the organs of the body
    heterotaxy.
  • noun an event in which one thing is substituted for another
    replacement; permutation; switch; substitution.
    • the replacement of lost blood by a transfusion of donor blood

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supercede

  • verb take the place or move into the position of
    supplant; supersede; supervene upon; replace.
    • Smith replaced Miller as CEO after Miller left
    • the computer has supplanted the slide rule
    • Mary replaced Susan as the team's captain and the highest-ranked player in the school

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relentless

  • adjective satellite not to be placated or appeased or moved by entreaty
    unrelenting; inexorable; unappeasable; stern; unforgiving; grim.
    • grim determination
    • grim necessity
    • Russia's final hour, it seemed, approached with inexorable certainty
    • relentless persecution
    • the stern demands of parenthood
  • adjective satellite never-ceasing
    unrelenting; persistent.
    • the relentless beat of the drums

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view

  • noun a way of regarding situations or topics etc.
    position; perspective.
    • consider what follows from the positivist view
  • noun the visual percept of a region
    prospect; vista; panorama; scene; aspect.
    • the most desirable feature of the park are the beautiful views

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guessing

  • noun an estimate based on little or no information
    guesswork; guess; dead reckoning; shot.
  • verb expect, believe, or suppose
    guess; reckon; suppose; imagine; opine; think.
    • I imagine she earned a lot of money with her new novel
    • I thought to find her in a bad state
    • he didn't think to find her in the kitchen
    • I guess she is angry at me for standing her up

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signify

  • verb denote or connote
    intend; stand for; mean.
    • `maison' means `house' in French
    • An example sentence would show what this word means
  • verb convey or express a meaning
    • These words mean nothing to me!
    • What does his strange behavior signify?

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reference

  • noun a remark that calls attention to something or someone
    mention.
    • she made frequent mention of her promotion
    • there was no mention of it
    • the speaker made several references to his wife
  • noun a short note recognizing a source of information or of a quoted passage
    acknowledgment; mention; citation; credit; cite; quotation.
    • the student's essay failed to list several important citations
    • the acknowledgments are usually printed at the front of a book
    • the article includes mention of similar clinical cases

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personal_identity

  • noun the distinct personality of an individual regarded as a persisting entity
    individuality; identity.
    • you can lose your identity when you join the army

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overwhelm

  • verb overcome, as with emotions or perceptual stimuli
    overtake; overpower; whelm; overcome; sweep over.
  • verb charge someone with too many tasks
    flood out; deluge.

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think_back

  • verb recapture the past; indulge in memories
    remember.
    • he remembered how he used to pick flowers

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view_as

  • verb keep in mind or convey as a conviction or view
    take for; hold; deem.
    • take for granted
    • view as important
    • hold these truths to be self-evident
    • I hold him personally responsible

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kink

  • noun a painful muscle spasm especially in the neck or back (`rick' and `wrick' are British)
    wrick; rick; crick.
  • noun a sharp bend in a line produced when a line having a loop is pulled tight
    twist; twirl.

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see

  • noun the seat within a bishop's diocese where his cathedral is located
  • verb perceive by sight or have the power to perceive by sight
    • You have to be a good observer to see all the details
    • Can you see the bird in that tree?
    • He is blind--he cannot see

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arouse

  • verb call forth (emotions, feelings, and responses)
    raise; fire; enkindle; elicit; evoke; kindle; provoke.
    • arouse pity
    • raise a smile
    • evoke sympathy
  • verb stop sleeping
    waken; come alive; wake; awake; awaken; wake up.
    • She woke up to the sound of the alarm clock

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medical_record

  • noun the case history of a medical patient as recalled by the patient
    anamnesis; medical history.

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envisioning

  • noun visual imagery
    picturing.
  • verb imagine; conceive of; see in one's mind
    picture; visualize; envision; figure; visualise; image; fancy; project; see.
    • I can't see him on horseback!
    • I can see what will happen
    • I can see a risk in this strategy

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refresher

  • noun a fee (in addition to that marked on the brief) paid to counsel in a case that lasts more than one day
  • noun a drink that refreshes
    • he stopped at the bar for a quick refresher

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visualize

  • verb imagine; conceive of; see in one's mind
    picture; envision; figure; visualise; image; fancy; project; see.
    • I can't see him on horseback!
    • I can see what will happen
    • I can see a risk in this strategy
  • verb view the outline of by means of an X-ray
    visualise.
    • The radiologist can visualize the cancerous liver

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pattern

  • noun a perceptual structure
    shape; form.
    • the composition presents problems for students of musical form
    • a visual pattern must include not only objects but the spaces between them
  • noun a customary way of operation or behavior
    practice.
    • it is their practice to give annual raises
    • they changed their dietary pattern

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away

  • adjective satellite not present; having left
    • he's away right now
    • you must not allow a stranger into the house when your mother is away
  • adjective used of an opponent's ground
    • an away game

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think_over

  • verb reflect deeply on a subject
    ponder; ruminate; mull; muse; reflect; contemplate; meditate; chew over; mull over; excogitate; speculate.
    • I mulled over the events of the afternoon
    • philosophers have speculated on the question of God for thousands of years
    • The scientist must stop to observe and start to excogitate

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ideate

  • verb form a mental image of something that is not present or that is not the case
    conceive of; envisage; imagine.
    • Can you conceive of him as the president?

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label

  • noun a brief description given for purposes of identification
    • the label Modern is applied to many different kinds of architecture
  • noun trade name of a company that produces musical recordings
    recording label.
    • the artists and repertoire department of a recording label is responsible for finding new talent

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favor

  • noun an act of gracious kindness
    favour.
  • noun an advantage to the benefit of someone or something
    favour.
    • the outcome was in his favor

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mug

  • noun the quantity that can be held in a mug
    mugful.
  • noun a person who is gullible and easy to take advantage of
    fool; soft touch; sucker; gull; patsy; fall guy; chump; mark.

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identification

  • noun the act of designating or identifying something
    designation.
  • noun evidence of identity; something that identifies a person or thing

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import

  • noun commodities (goods or services) bought from a foreign country
    importation.
  • noun an imported person brought from a foreign country
    importee.
    • the lead role was played by an import from Sweden
    • they are descendants of indentured importees

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reading

  • noun the cognitive process of understanding a written linguistic message
    • his main reading was detective stories
    • suggestions for further reading
  • noun a particular interpretation or performance
    • on that reading it was an insult
    • he was famous for his reading of Mozart

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memorialisation

  • noun a ceremony to honor the memory of someone or something
    commemoration; memorialization.

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retentive

  • adjective good at remembering
    tenacious; recollective; long.
    • a retentive mind
    • tenacious memory
  • adjective having the capacity to retain something

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knowing

  • noun a clear and certain mental apprehension
  • verb be cognizant or aware of a fact or a specific piece of information; possess knowledge or information about
    know; cognize; cognise.
    • I know that the President lied to the people
    • I want to know who is winning the game!
    • I know it's time

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keynote

  • noun the principal theme in a speech or literary work
  • noun a fundamental or central idea

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dream_up

  • verb devise or invent
    think up; think of; concoct; hatch.
    • He thought up a plan to get rich quickly
    • no-one had ever thought of such a clever piece of software

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venture

  • noun any venturesome undertaking especially one with an uncertain outcome
  • noun an investment that is very risky but could yield great profits
    speculation.
    • he knew the stock was a speculation when he bought it

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visualise

  • verb view the outline of by means of an X-ray
    visualize.
    • The radiologist can visualize the cancerous liver
  • verb form a mental picture of something that is invisible or abstract
    visualize.
    • Mathematicians often visualize

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screen

  • noun a white or silvered surface where pictures can be projected for viewing
    projection screen; silver screen.
  • noun a protective covering that keeps things out or hinders sight
    blind.
    • they had just moved in and had not put up blinds yet

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concentrate

  • noun the desired mineral that is left after impurities have been removed from mined ore
    dressed ore.
  • noun a concentrated form of a foodstuff; the bulk is reduced by removing water

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key

  • noun metal device shaped in such a way that when it is inserted into the appropriate lock the lock's mechanism can be rotated
  • noun something crucial for explaining
    • the key to development is economic integration

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distinguish

  • verb mark as different
    secernate; severalise; separate; severalize; tell apart; differentiate; tell; secern.
    • We distinguish several kinds of maple
  • verb detect with the senses
    recognize; spot; make out; tell apart; recognise; pick out; discern.
    • The fleeing convicts were picked out of the darkness by the watchful prison guards
    • I can't make out the faces in this photograph

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conceive_of

  • verb form a mental image of something that is not present or that is not the case
    envisage; ideate; imagine.
    • Can you conceive of him as the president?

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come

  • noun the thick white fluid containing spermatozoa that is ejaculated by the male genital tract
    semen; ejaculate; seminal fluid; seed; cum.
  • verb move toward, travel toward something or somebody or approach something or somebody
    come up.
    • He came singing down the road
    • Come with me to the Casbah
    • come down here!
    • come out of the closet!
    • come into the room

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linkage

  • noun an associative relation
  • noun (genetics) traits that tend to be inherited together as a consequence of an association between their genes; all of the genes of a given chromosome are linked (where one goes they all go)
    gene linkage.

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oust

  • verb remove from a position or office
    expel; boot out; drum out; throw out; kick out.
    • The chairman was ousted after he misappropriated funds
  • verb remove and replace
    • The word processor has ousted the typewriter

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drum

  • noun a musical percussion instrument; usually consists of a hollow cylinder with a membrane stretched across each end
    tympan; membranophone.
  • noun the sound of a drum
    • he could hear the drums before he heard the fifes

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stand_by

  • verb not act or do anything
    • He just stood by when the police beat up the demonstrators
  • verb be available or ready for a certain function or service
    stick around; stick about.

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retentiveness

  • noun the power of retaining and recalling past experience
    retention; retentivity; memory.
    • he had a good memory when he was younger
  • noun the property of retaining possessions that have been acquired
    retentivity.

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connection

  • noun a relation between things or events (as in the case of one causing the other or sharing features with it)
    connexion; connectedness.
    • there was a connection between eating that pickle and having that nightmare
  • noun the state of being connected
    link; connectedness.
    • the connection between church and state is inescapable

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succeed

  • verb attain success or reach a desired goal
    win; come through; bring home the bacon; deliver the goods.
    • The enterprise succeeded
    • We succeeded in getting tickets to the show
    • she struggled to overcome her handicap and won
  • verb be the successor (of)
    come after; follow.
    • Carter followed Ford
    • Will Charles succeed to the throne?

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supplanting

  • noun act of taking the place of another especially using underhanded tactics
    displacement.
  • verb take the place or move into the position of
    supercede; supplant; supersede; supervene upon; replace.
    • Smith replaced Miller as CEO after Miller left
    • the computer has supplanted the slide rule
    • Mary replaced Susan as the team's captain and the highest-ranked player in the school

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pertinacious

  • adjective satellite stubbornly unyielding
    tenacious; dour; dogged; persistent; unyielding.
    • dogged persistence
    • dour determination
    • the most vocal and pertinacious of all the critics
    • a mind not gifted to discover truth but tenacious to hold it"- T.S.Eliot
    • men tenacious of opinion

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itemize

  • verb specify individually
    recite; itemise; enumerate.
    • She enumerated the many obstacles she had encountered
    • The doctor recited the list of possible side effects of the drug
  • verb place on a list of items
    itemise.
    • itemize one's tax deductions

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con

  • noun an argument opposed to a proposal
  • noun a person serving a sentence in a jail or prison
    inmate; convict; yard bird; yardbird.

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generalisation

  • noun an idea or conclusion having general application
    generality; generalization.
    • he spoke in broad generalities
  • noun the process of formulating general concepts by abstracting common properties of instances
    abstraction; generalization.

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step_in

  • verb get involved, so as to alter or hinder an action, or through force or threat of force
    intervene; interpose; interfere.
    • Why did the U.S. not intervene earlier in WW II?
  • verb act as a substitute
    deputize; substitute; deputise.
    • She stood in for the soprano who suffered from a cold

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conclude

  • verb decide by reasoning; draw or come to a conclusion
    reason; reason out.
    • We reasoned that it was cheaper to rent than to buy a house
  • verb bring to a close
    • The committee concluded the meeting

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medical_history

  • noun the case history of a medical patient as recalled by the patient
    medical record; anamnesis.

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take_for

  • verb keep in mind or convey as a conviction or view
    hold; deem; view as.
    • take for granted
    • view as important
    • hold these truths to be self-evident
    • I hold him personally responsible

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conceptualise

  • verb have the idea for
    gestate; conceive; conceptualize.
    • He conceived of a robot that would help paralyzed patients
    • This library was well conceived

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typify

  • verb embody the essential characteristics of or be a typical example of
    epitomise; epitomize.
    • The fugue typifies Bach's style of composition
  • verb express indirectly by an image, form, or model; be a symbol
    symbolise; symbolize; represent; stand for.
    • What does the Statue of Liberty symbolize?

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yoke

  • noun fabric comprising a fitted part at the top of a garment
  • noun an oppressive power
    • under the yoke of a tyrant
    • they threw off the yoke of domination

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learning

  • noun the cognitive process of acquiring skill or knowledge
    acquisition.
    • the child's acquisition of language
  • noun profound scholarly knowledge
    eruditeness; encyclopaedism; learnedness; erudition; encyclopedism; scholarship.

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call_up

  • noun an order to report for military duty
  • verb bring forward for consideration
    bring forward.
    • The case was called up in court

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respect

  • noun (usually preceded by `in') a detail or point
    regard.
    • it differs in that respect
  • noun the condition of being honored (esteemed or respected or well regarded)
    regard; esteem.
    • it is held in esteem
    • a man who has earned high regard

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trust

  • noun something (as property) held by one party (the trustee) for the benefit of another (the beneficiary)
    • he is the beneficiary of a generous trust set up by his father
  • noun certainty based on past experience
    reliance.
    • he wrote the paper with considerable reliance on the work of other scientists
    • he put more trust in his own two legs than in the gun

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connexion

  • noun a connecting shape
    link; connection.
  • noun a relation between things or events (as in the case of one causing the other or sharing features with it)
    connection; connectedness.
    • there was a connection between eating that pickle and having that nightmare

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memorise

  • verb commit to memory; learn by heart
    learn; memorize; con.
    • Have you memorized your lines for the play yet?

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speak

  • verb express in speech
    verbalise; verbalize; mouth; utter; talk.
    • She talks a lot of nonsense
    • This depressed patient does not verbalize
  • verb exchange thoughts; talk with
    talk.
    • We often talk business
    • Actions talk louder than words

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prefigure

  • verb imagine or consider beforehand
    • It wasn't as bad as I had prefigured
  • verb indicate by signs
    omen; auspicate; bode; betoken; portend; foreshadow; predict; foretell; augur; prognosticate; forecast; presage.
    • These signs bode bad news

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stamp

  • noun the distinctive form in which a thing is made
    mould; cast; mold.
    • pottery of this cast was found throughout the region
  • noun a type or class
    • more men of his stamp are needed

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have_in_mind

  • verb intend to refer to
    think of; mean.
    • I'm thinking of good food when I talk about France
    • Yes, I meant you when I complained about people who gossip!

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mark

  • noun a number or letter indicating quality (especially of a student's performance)
    grade; score.
    • she made good marks in algebra
    • grade A milk
    • what was your score on your homework?
  • noun a distinguishing symbol
    marker; marking.
    • the owner's mark was on all the sheep

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advert

  • noun a public promotion of some product or service
    ad; advertising; advertisement; advertizement; advertizing.
  • verb give heed (to)
    hang; give ear; attend; pay heed.
    • The children in the audience attended the recital quietly
    • She hung on his every word
    • They attended to everything he said

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interpret

  • verb make sense of; assign a meaning to
    see; construe.
    • What message do you see in this letter?
    • How do you interpret his behavior?
  • verb give an interpretation or explanation to
    rede.

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interest

  • noun a sense of concern with and curiosity about someone or something
    involvement.
    • an interest in music
  • noun a reason for wanting something done
    sake.
    • for your sake
    • died for the sake of his country
    • in the interest of safety
    • in the common interest

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utter

  • verb articulate; either verbally or with a cry, shout, or noise
    give tongue to; express; verbalise; verbalize.
    • She expressed her anger
    • He uttered a curse
  • verb express audibly; utter sounds (not necessarily words)
    let loose; emit; let out.
    • She let out a big heavy sigh
    • He uttered strange sounds that nobody could understand

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retrospect

  • noun contemplation of things past
    • in retrospect
  • verb look back upon (a period of time, sequence of events); remember
    review; look back.
    • she reviewed her achievements with pride

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retrospective

  • noun an exhibition of a representative selection of an artist's life work
  • adjective concerned with or related to the past
    • retrospective self-justification

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reaction

  • noun (chemistry) a process in which one or more substances are changed into others
    chemical reaction.
    • there was a chemical reaction of the lime with the ground water
  • noun an idea evoked by some experience
    • his reaction to the news was to start planning what to do

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fire

  • noun the event of something burning (often destructive)
    • they lost everything in the fire
  • noun the act of firing weapons or artillery at an enemy
    firing.
    • hold your fire until you can see the whites of their eyes
    • they retreated in the face of withering enemy fire

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mind

  • noun that which is responsible for one's thoughts and feelings; the seat of the faculty of reason
    psyche; brain; head; nous.
    • his mind wandered
    • I couldn't get his words out of my head
  • noun recall or remembrance
    • it came to mind

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excite

  • verb arouse or elicit a feeling
  • verb act as a stimulant
    stimulate.
    • The book stimulated her imagination
    • This play stimulates

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disesteem

  • noun the state in which esteem has been lost
  • verb have little or no respect for; hold in contempt
    disrespect.

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wake

  • noun the consequences of an event (especially a catastrophic event)
    aftermath; backwash.
    • the aftermath of war
    • in the wake of the accident no one knew how many had been injured
  • noun an island in the western Pacific between Guam and Hawaii
    Wake Island.

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theorize

  • verb to believe especially on uncertain or tentative grounds
    conjecture; hypothesize; theorise; hypothesise; suppose; speculate; hypothecate.
    • Scientists supposed that large dinosaurs lived in swamps
  • verb construct a theory about
    • Galileo theorized the motion of the stars

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spirit

  • noun the vital principle or animating force within living things
  • noun the general atmosphere of a place or situation and the effect that it has on people
    flavour; look; feel; tone; flavor; feeling; smell.
    • the feel of the city excited him
    • a clergyman improved the tone of the meeting
    • it had the smell of treason

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cognize

  • verb be cognizant or aware of a fact or a specific piece of information; possess knowledge or information about
    know; cognise.
    • I know that the President lied to the people
    • I want to know who is winning the game!
    • I know it's time

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cypher

  • noun a mathematical element that when added to another number yields the same number
    0; zero; nought; cipher.
  • noun a quantity of no importance
    aught; zip; nil; nada; zero; nix; cipher; zilch; goose egg; zippo; nothing; naught; null.
    • it looked like nothing I had ever seen before
    • reduced to nil all the work we had done
    • we racked up a pathetic goose egg
    • it was all for naught
    • I didn't hear zilch about it

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conception

  • noun an abstract or general idea inferred or derived from specific instances
    concept; construct.
  • noun the act of becoming pregnant; fertilization of an ovum by a spermatozoon

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look

  • noun the feelings expressed on a person's face
    facial expression; expression; aspect; face.
    • a sad expression
    • a look of triumph
    • an angry face
  • noun the act of directing the eyes toward something and perceiving it visually
    looking; looking at.
    • he went out to have a look
    • his look was fixed on her eyes
    • he gave it a good looking at
    • his camera does his looking for him

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sex

  • noun activities associated with sexual intercourse
    sexual activity; sex activity; sexual practice.
    • they had sex in the back seat
  • noun either of the two categories (male or female) into which most organisms are divided
    • the war between the sexes

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budget

  • noun a sum of money allocated for a particular purpose
    • the laboratory runs on a budget of a million a year
  • noun a summary of intended expenditures along with proposals for how to meet them
    • the president submitted the annual budget to Congress

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value

  • noun a numerical quantity measured or assigned or computed
    • the value assigned was 16 milliseconds
  • noun the quality (positive or negative) that renders something desirable or valuable
    • the Shakespearean Shylock is of dubious value in the modern world

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aim

  • noun an anticipated outcome that is intended or that guides your planned actions
    intention; design; intent; purpose.
    • his intent was to provide a new translation
    • good intentions are not enough
    • it was created with the conscious aim of answering immediate needs
    • he made no secret of his designs
  • noun the goal intended to be attained (and which is believed to be attainable)
    objective; object; target.
    • the sole object of her trip was to see her children

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receive

  • verb get something; come into possession of
    have.
    • receive payment
    • receive a gift
    • receive letters from the front
  • verb receive a specified treatment (abstract)
    incur; obtain; find; get.
    • These aspects of civilization do not find expression or receive an interpretation
    • His movie received a good review
    • I got nothing but trouble for my good intentions

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suppose

  • verb express a supposition
    say.
    • Let us say that he did not tell the truth
    • Let's say you had a lot of money--what would you do?
  • verb expect, believe, or suppose
    guess; reckon; imagine; opine; think.
    • I imagine she earned a lot of money with her new novel
    • I thought to find her in a bad state
    • he didn't think to find her in the kitchen
    • I guess she is angry at me for standing her up

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retentivity

  • noun the power of retaining and recalling past experience
    retention; retentiveness; memory.
    • he had a good memory when he was younger
  • noun the property of retaining possessions that have been acquired
    retentiveness.

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study

  • noun a detailed critical inspection
    survey.
  • noun applying the mind to learning and understanding a subject (especially by reading)
    work.
    • mastering a second language requires a lot of work
    • no schools offer graduate study in interior design

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picturing

  • noun visual imagery
    envisioning.
  • noun visual representation as by photography or painting
    pictorial representation.

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mistake

  • noun a wrong action attributable to bad judgment or ignorance or inattention
    fault; error.
    • he made a bad mistake
    • she was quick to point out my errors
    • I could understand his English in spite of his grammatical faults
  • noun an understanding of something that is not correct
    misunderstanding; misapprehension.
    • he wasn't going to admit his mistake
    • make no mistake about his intentions
    • there must be some misunderstanding--I don't have a sister

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remembering

  • noun the cognitive processes whereby past experience is remembered
    memory.
    • he can do it from memory
    • he enjoyed remembering his father
  • verb recall knowledge from memory; have a recollection
    retrieve; remember; recall; recollect; call back; think; call up.
    • I can't remember saying any such thing
    • I can't think what her last name was
    • can you remember her phone number?
    • Do you remember that he once loved you?
    • call up memories

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motif

  • noun a design or figure that consists of recurring shapes or colors, as in architecture or decoration
    motive.
  • noun a theme that is repeated or elaborated in a piece of music
    motive.

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contrive

  • verb make or work out a plan for; devise
    project; design; plan.
    • They contrived to murder their boss
    • design a new sales strategy
    • plan an attack
  • verb come up with (an idea, plan, explanation, theory, or principle) after a mental effort
    formulate; devise; invent; excogitate; forge.
    • excogitate a way to measure the speed of light

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it

  • noun the branch of engineering that deals with the use of computers and telecommunications to retrieve and store and transmit information
    information technology.

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recollective

  • adjective good at remembering
    tenacious; long; retentive.
    • a retentive mind
    • tenacious memory

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consociate

  • verb bring or come into association or action
    associate.
    • The churches consociated to fight their dissolution

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characterize

  • verb describe or portray the character or the qualities or peculiarities of
    qualify; characterise.
    • You can characterize his behavior as that of an egotist
    • This poem can be characterized as a lament for a dead lover
  • verb be characteristic of
    characterise.
    • What characterizes a Venetian painting?

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elicit

  • verb call forth (emotions, feelings, and responses)
    raise; fire; enkindle; arouse; evoke; kindle; provoke.
    • arouse pity
    • raise a smile
    • evoke sympathy
  • verb deduce (a principle) or construe (a meaning)
    draw out; extract; educe; evoke.
    • We drew out some interesting linguistic data from the native informant

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in

  • noun a unit of length equal to one twelfth of a foot
    inch.
  • noun a rare soft silvery metallic element; occurs in small quantities in sphalerite
    indium; atomic number 49.

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attend_to

  • verb get down to; pay attention to; take seriously
    take to heart.
    • Attend to your duties, please
  • verb work for or be a servant to
    attend; assist; serve; wait on.
    • May I serve you?
    • She attends the old lady in the wheelchair
    • Can you wait on our table, please?
    • Is a salesperson assisting you?
    • The minister served the King for many years

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sponge

  • noun a porous mass of interlacing fibers that forms the internal skeleton of various marine animals and usable to absorb water or any porous rubber or cellulose product similarly used
  • noun someone able to acquire new knowledge and skills rapidly and easily
    quick study.
    • she soaks up foreign languages like a sponge

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mull_over

  • verb reflect deeply on a subject
    ponder; ruminate; mull; muse; think over; reflect; contemplate; meditate; chew over; excogitate; speculate.
    • I mulled over the events of the afternoon
    • philosophers have speculated on the question of God for thousands of years
    • The scientist must stop to observe and start to excogitate

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make

  • noun a recognizable kind
    brand.
    • there's a new brand of hero in the movies now
    • what make of car is that?
  • noun the act of mixing cards haphazardly
    shuffle; shuffling.

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wound

  • noun an injury to living tissue (especially an injury involving a cut or break in the skin)
    lesion.
  • noun a casualty to military personnel resulting from combat
    injury; combat injury.

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unite

  • verb act in concert or unite in a common purpose or belief
    unify.
  • verb become one
    merge; unify.
    • Germany unified officially in 1990
    • the cells merge

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excogitate

  • verb come up with (an idea, plan, explanation, theory, or principle) after a mental effort
    formulate; devise; contrive; invent; forge.
    • excogitate a way to measure the speed of light
  • verb reflect deeply on a subject
    ponder; ruminate; mull; muse; think over; reflect; contemplate; meditate; chew over; mull over; speculate.
    • I mulled over the events of the afternoon
    • philosophers have speculated on the question of God for thousands of years
    • The scientist must stop to observe and start to excogitate

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working_memory

  • noun memory for intermediate results that must be held during thinking

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speaker

  • noun someone who expresses in language; someone who talks (especially someone who delivers a public speech or someone especially garrulous)
    verbalizer; talker; utterer; verbaliser.
    • the speaker at commencement
    • an utterer of useful maxims
  • noun electro-acoustic transducer that converts electrical signals into sounds loud enough to be heard at a distance
    loudspeaker; speaker unit; loudspeaker system; speaker system.

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connectedness

  • noun the state of being connected
    connection; link.
    • the connection between church and state is inescapable
  • noun a relation between things or events (as in the case of one causing the other or sharing features with it)
    connection; connexion.
    • there was a connection between eating that pickle and having that nightmare

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surmise

  • noun a message expressing an opinion based on incomplete evidence
    guess; conjecture; supposition; surmisal; hypothesis; speculation.
  • verb infer from incomplete evidence

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infer

  • verb reason by deduction; establish by deduction
    derive; deduce; deduct.
  • verb draw from specific cases for more general cases
    extrapolate; generalize; generalise.

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bear_in_mind

  • verb keep in mind
    mind.

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absorb

  • verb become imbued
    • The liquids, light, and gases absorb
  • verb take up mentally
    assimilate; take in; ingest.
    • he absorbed the knowledge or beliefs of his tribe

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hang

  • noun a special way of doing something
    knack; bent.
    • he had a bent for it
    • he had a special knack for getting into trouble
    • he couldn't get the hang of it
  • noun the way a garment hangs
    • he adjusted the hang of his coat

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effect

  • noun a phenomenon that follows and is caused by some previous phenomenon
    result; consequence; upshot; outcome; issue; event.
    • the magnetic effect was greater when the rod was lengthwise
    • his decision had depressing consequences for business
    • he acted very wise after the event
  • noun an outward appearance
    impression.
    • he made a good impression
    • I wanted to create an impression of success
    • she retained that bold effect in her reproductions of the original painting

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displace

  • verb cause to move, usually with force or pressure
    • the refugees were displaced by the war
  • verb take the place of or have precedence over
    preempt.
    • live broadcast of the presidential debate preempts the regular news hour
    • discussion of the emergency situation will preempt the lecture by the professor

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unyielding

  • adjective satellite stubbornly unyielding
    tenacious; dour; dogged; persistent; pertinacious.
    • dogged persistence
    • dour determination
    • the most vocal and pertinacious of all the critics
    • a mind not gifted to discover truth but tenacious to hold it"- T.S.Eliot
    • men tenacious of opinion
  • adjective satellite resistant to physical force or pressure
    • an unyielding head support

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misconstrue

  • verb interpret in the wrong way
    misinterpret; misunderstand; misconceive; be amiss; misapprehend.
    • Don't misinterpret my comments as criticism
    • She misconstrued my remarks

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opinion

  • noun a personal belief or judgment that is not founded on proof or certainty
    thought; persuasion; sentiment; view.
    • my opinion differs from yours
    • I am not of your persuasion
    • what are your thoughts on Haiti?
  • noun a message expressing a belief about something; the expression of a belief that is held with confidence but not substantiated by positive knowledge or proof
    view.
    • his opinions appeared frequently on the editorial page

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supplanter

  • noun one who wrongfully or illegally seizes and holds the place of another
    usurper.

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judgment

  • noun an opinion formed by judging something
    judgement; mind.
    • he was reluctant to make his judgment known
    • she changed her mind
  • noun the act of judging or assessing a person or situation or event
    judgement; assessment.
    • they criticized my judgment of the contestants

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identity

  • noun the distinct personality of an individual regarded as a persisting entity
    personal identity; individuality.
    • you can lose your identity when you join the army
  • noun the individual characteristics by which a thing or person is recognized or known
    • geneticists only recently discovered the identity of the gene that causes it
    • it was too dark to determine his identity
    • she guessed the identity of his lover

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stick_around

  • verb be available or ready for a certain function or service
    stick about; stand by.
  • verb stay put (in a certain place); we are not moving to Cincinnati"
    stay put; stick; stay.
    • We are staying in Detroit
    • Stay put in the corner here!
    • Stick around and you will learn something!

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commemorate

  • verb mark by some ceremony or observation
    mark.
    • The citizens mark the anniversary of the revolution with a march and a parade
  • verb call to remembrance; keep alive the memory of someone or something, as in a ceremony
    remember.
    • We remembered the 50th anniversary of the liberation of Auschwitz
    • Remember the dead of the First World War

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center

  • noun an area that is approximately central within some larger region
    heart; middle; eye; centre.
    • it is in the center of town
    • they ran forward into the heart of the struggle
    • they were in the eye of the storm
  • noun the piece of ground in the outfield directly ahead of the catcher
    centerfield; center field.
    • he hit the ball to deep center

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episodic

  • adjective satellite of writing or narration; divided into or composed of episodes
    • the book is episodic and the incidents don't always hang together
  • adjective satellite occurring or appearing at usually irregular intervals
    occasional.
    • episodic in his affections
    • occasional headaches

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surrogate

  • noun someone who takes the place of another person
    replacement; alternate.
  • noun a person appointed to represent or act on behalf of others
    deputy.

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grind

  • noun an insignificant student who is ridiculed as being affected or boringly studious
    wonk; dweeb; nerd; swot.
  • noun the grade of particle fineness to which a substance is ground
    • a coarse grind of coffee

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thought

  • noun the content of cognition; the main thing you are thinking about
    idea.
    • it was not a good idea
    • the thought never entered my mind
  • noun the process of using your mind to consider something carefully
    cerebration; thinking; mentation; intellection; thought process.
    • thinking always made him frown
    • she paused for thought

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severalize

  • verb distinguish or separate
    severalise.
  • verb mark as different
    secernate; severalise; separate; tell apart; differentiate; distinguish; tell; secern.
    • We distinguish several kinds of maple

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single_out

  • verb select from a group
    • She was singled out for her outstanding performance
  • verb treat differently on the basis of sex or race
    discriminate; separate.

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contact

  • noun close interaction
    • they kept in daily contact
    • they claimed that they had been in contact with extraterrestrial beings
  • noun the act of touching physically
    physical contact.
    • her fingers came in contact with the light switch

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relief

  • noun the feeling that comes when something burdensome is removed or reduced
    assuagement; alleviation.
    • as he heard the news he was suddenly flooded with relief
  • noun the condition of being comfortable or relieved (especially after being relieved of distress)
    ease.
    • he enjoyed his relief from responsibility
    • getting it off his conscience gave him some ease

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mother

  • noun a woman who has given birth to a child (also used as a term of address to your mother)
    female parent.
    • the mother of three children
  • noun a stringy slimy substance consisting of yeast cells and bacteria; forms during fermentation and is added to cider or wine to produce vinegar

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position

  • noun the particular portion of space occupied by something
    place.
    • he put the lamp back in its place
  • noun a point occupied by troops for tactical reasons
    military position.

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model

  • noun a hypothetical description of a complex entity or process
    framework; theoretical account.
    • the computer program was based on a model of the circulatory and respiratory systems
  • noun a type of product
    • his car was an old model

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confabulate

  • verb unconsciously replace fact with fantasy in one's memory
  • verb talk socially without exchanging too much information
    shoot the breeze; chit-chat; chew the fat; confab; chitchat; jaw; claver; visit; chaffer; chat; natter; gossip; chatter.
    • the men were sitting in the cafe and shooting the breeze

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docket

  • noun (law) the calendar of a court; the list of cases to be tried or a summary of the court's activities
  • noun a temporally organized plan for matters to be attended to
    agenda; schedule.

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hit_the_books

  • verb learn by reading books; I must hit the books now"
    study.
    • He is studying geology in his room
    • I have an exam next week

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remember

  • verb recall knowledge from memory; have a recollection
    retrieve; recall; recollect; call back; think; call up.
    • I can't remember saying any such thing
    • I can't think what her last name was
    • can you remember her phone number?
    • Do you remember that he once loved you?
    • call up memories
  • verb keep in mind for attention or consideration
    think of.
    • Remember the Alamo
    • Remember to call your mother every day!
    • Think of the starving children in India!

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chord

  • noun a straight line connecting two points on a curve
  • noun a combination of three or more notes that blend harmoniously when sounded together

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memoriser

  • noun a person who learns by rote
    memorizer.

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know_apart

  • verb recognize or perceive the difference
    discriminate.

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think_of

  • verb keep in mind for attention or consideration
    remember.
    • Remember the Alamo
    • Remember to call your mother every day!
    • Think of the starving children in India!
  • verb take into consideration, have in view
    think about; flirt with; entertain; toy with.
    • He entertained the notion of moving to South America

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bruise

  • noun an injury that doesn't break the skin but results in some discoloration
    contusion.
  • verb injure the underlying soft tissue or bone of
    contuse.
    • I bruised my knee

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recollection

  • noun the ability to recall past occurrences
    remembrance; anamnesis.
  • noun the process of remembering (especially the process of recovering information by mental effort)
    recall; reminiscence.
    • he has total recall of the episode

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identify

  • verb recognize as being; establish the identity of someone or something
    place.
    • She identified the man on the 'wanted' poster
  • verb give the name or identifying characteristics of; refer to by name or some other identifying characteristic property
    name.
    • Many senators were named in connection with the scandal
    • The almanac identifies the auspicious months

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touch

  • noun the event of something coming in contact with the body
    touching.
    • he longed for the touch of her hand
    • the cooling touch of the night air
  • noun the faculty by which external objects or forces are perceived through contact with the body (especially the hands)
    sense of touch; touch modality; skin senses; cutaneous senses.
    • only sight and touch enable us to locate objects in the space around us

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think_about

  • verb have on one's mind, think about actively
    • I'm thinking about my friends abroad
    • She always thinks about her children first
  • verb take into consideration, have in view
    think of; flirt with; entertain; toy with.
    • He entertained the notion of moving to South America

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alternative

  • noun one of a number of things from which only one can be chosen
    option; choice.
    • what option did I have?
    • there no other alternative
    • my only choice is to refuse
  • adjective satellite serving or used in place of another
    alternate; substitute.
    • an alternative plan

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reminiscence

  • noun a mental impression retained and recalled from the past
  • noun the process of remembering (especially the process of recovering information by mental effort)
    recall; recollection.
    • he has total recall of the episode

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studying

  • noun reading carefully with intent to remember
    perusal; perusing; poring over.
  • verb consider in detail and subject to an analysis in order to discover essential features or meaning
    canvas; study; analyse; examine; canvass; analyze.
    • analyze a sonnet by Shakespeare
    • analyze the evidence in a criminal trial
    • analyze your real motives

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commemoration

  • noun a ceremony to honor the memory of someone or something
    memorialisation; memorialization.
  • noun a recognition of meritorious service
    remembrance; memorial.

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take_over

  • verb seize and take control without authority and possibly with force; take as one's right or possession
    assume; arrogate; usurp; seize.
    • He assumed to himself the right to fill all positions in the town
    • he usurped my rights
    • She seized control of the throne after her husband died
  • verb take on titles, offices, duties, responsibilities
    assume; take on; adopt.
    • When will the new President assume office?

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speculate

  • verb to believe especially on uncertain or tentative grounds
    conjecture; theorize; hypothesize; theorise; hypothesise; suppose; hypothecate.
    • Scientists supposed that large dinosaurs lived in swamps
  • verb talk over conjecturally, or review in an idle or casual way and with an element of doubt or without sufficient reason to reach a conclusion
    • We were speculating whether the President had to resign after the scandal

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thinking

  • noun the process of using your mind to consider something carefully
    cerebration; mentation; thought; intellection; thought process.
    • thinking always made him frown
    • she paused for thought
  • verb judge or regard; look upon; judge
    conceive; believe; think; consider.
    • I think he is very smart
    • I believe her to be very smart
    • I think that he is her boyfriend
    • The racist conceives such people to be inferior

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alternate

  • noun someone who takes the place of another person
    replacement; surrogate.
  • verb go back and forth; swing back and forth between two states or conditions
    jump.

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character

  • noun an imaginary person represented in a work of fiction (play or film or story)
    fictional character; fictitious character.
    • she is the main character in the novel
  • noun a characteristic property that defines the apparent individual nature of something
    lineament; quality.
    • each town has a quality all its own
    • the radical character of our demands

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anamnesis

  • noun the case history of a medical patient as recalled by the patient
    medical record; medical history.
  • noun the ability to recall past occurrences
    remembrance; recollection.

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refresher_course

  • noun a course that reviews and updates a topic for those who have not kept abreast of developments
    refresher.

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source

  • noun the place where something begins, where it springs into being
    origin; root; beginning; rootage.
    • the Italian beginning of the Renaissance
    • Jupiter was the origin of the radiation
    • Pittsburgh is the source of the Ohio River
    • communism's Russian root
  • noun a document (or organization) from which information is obtained
    • the reporter had two sources for the story

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theorem

  • noun a proposition deducible from basic postulates
  • noun an idea accepted as a demonstrable truth

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cogitate

  • verb consider carefully and deeply; reflect upon; turn over in one's mind
  • verb use or exercise the mind or one's power of reason in order to make inferences, decisions, or arrive at a solution or judgments
    cerebrate; think.
    • I've been thinking all day and getting nowhere

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strike_a_chord

  • verb create an emotional response
    • The music struck a chord with the listeners
  • verb refer to or be relevant or familiar to
    strike a note; hit home; strike home.
    • I hope this message hits home!

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ask_for_trouble

  • verb persist with actions or an attitude despite the probability that it will cause trouble
    ask for it.
    • He is asking for trouble with his behavior

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brainstorm

  • noun the clear (and often sudden) understanding of a complex situation
    insight; brainwave.
  • verb try to solve a problem by thinking intensely about it

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take

  • noun the income or profit arising from such transactions as the sale of land or other property
    return; yield; takings; issue; proceeds; payoff.
    • the average return was about 5%
  • noun the act of photographing a scene or part of a scene without interruption

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cerebrate

  • verb use or exercise the mind or one's power of reason in order to make inferences, decisions, or arrive at a solution or judgments
    cogitate; think.
    • I've been thinking all day and getting nowhere

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around

  • adverb in the area or vicinity
    about.
    • a few spectators standing about
    • hanging around
    • waited around for the next flight
  • adverb by a circular or circuitous route
    • He came all the way around the base
    • the road goes around the pond

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fill_in

  • verb supply with information on a specific topic
    • He filled me in on the latest developments
  • verb represent the effect of shade or shadow on
    shade.

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read

  • noun something that is read
    • the article was a very good read
  • verb interpret something that is written or printed
    • read the advertisement
    • Have you read Salman Rushdie?

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evaluate

  • verb evaluate or estimate the nature, quality, ability, extent, or significance of
    measure; value; assess; valuate; appraise.
    • I will have the family jewels appraised by a professional
    • access all the factors when taking a risk
  • verb form a critical opinion of
    judge; pass judgment.
    • I cannot judge some works of modern art
    • How do you evaluate this grant proposal?" "We shouldn't pass judgment on other people

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characterise

  • verb be characteristic of
    characterize.
    • What characterizes a Venetian painting?
  • verb describe or portray the character or the qualities or peculiarities of
    characterize; qualify.
    • You can characterize his behavior as that of an egotist
    • This poem can be characterized as a lament for a dead lover

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sweep

  • noun a wide scope
    expanse.
    • the sweep of the plains
  • noun someone who cleans soot from chimneys
    chimneysweep; chimneysweeper.

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symbolise

  • verb represent or identify by using a symbol; use symbols
    symbolize.
    • The poet symbolizes love in this poem
    • These painters believed that artists should symbolize
  • verb express indirectly by an image, form, or model; be a symbol
    typify; symbolize; represent; stand for.
    • What does the Statue of Liberty symbolize?

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sorting

  • noun an operation that segregates items into groups according to a specified criterion
    sort.
    • the bottleneck in mail delivery is the process of sorting
  • noun the basic cognitive process of arranging into classes or categories
    categorisation; categorization; classification.

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know

  • noun the fact of being aware of information that is known to few people
    • he is always in the know
  • verb be cognizant or aware of a fact or a specific piece of information; possess knowledge or information about
    cognize; cognise.
    • I know that the President lied to the people
    • I want to know who is winning the game!
    • I know it's time

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burden

  • noun an onerous or difficult concern
    load; incumbrance; onus; encumbrance.
    • the burden of responsibility
    • that's a load off my mind
  • noun weight to be borne or conveyed
    load; loading.

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tie

  • noun neckwear consisting of a long narrow piece of material worn (mostly by men) under a collar and tied in knot at the front
    necktie.
    • he stood in front of the mirror tightening his necktie
    • he wore a vest and tie
  • noun a social or business relationship
    affiliation; tie-up; association.
    • a valuable financial affiliation
    • he was sorry he had to sever his ties with other members of the team
    • many close associations with England

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judge

  • noun a public official authorized to decide questions brought before a court of justice
    justice; jurist.
  • noun an authority who is able to estimate worth or quality
    evaluator.

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key_out

  • verb identify as in botany or biology, for example
    name; describe; discover; identify; key; distinguish.

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supervene_upon

  • verb take the place or move into the position of
    supercede; supplant; supersede; replace.
    • Smith replaced Miller as CEO after Miller left
    • the computer has supplanted the slide rule
    • Mary replaced Susan as the team's captain and the highest-ranked player in the school

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apart

  • adjective satellite remote and separate physically or socially
    obscure; isolated.
    • existed over the centuries as a world apart
    • preserved because they inhabited a place apart"- W.H.Hudson
    • tiny isolated villages remote from centers of civilization
    • an obscure village
  • adjective satellite having characteristics not shared by others
    • scientists felt they were a group apart"- Vannever Bush

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sort_out

  • verb arrange or order by classes or categories
    sort; separate; assort; class; classify.
    • How would you classify these pottery shards--are they prehistoric?
  • verb make free from confusion or ambiguity; make clear
    crystallise; illuminate; straighten out; elucidate; clear; clear up; crystallize; crystalise; shed light on; crystalize; enlighten.
    • Could you clarify these remarks?
    • Clear up the question of who is at fault

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rotate

  • verb turn on or around an axis or a center
    revolve; go around.
    • The Earth revolves around the Sun
    • The lamb roast rotates on a spit over the fire
  • verb exchange on a regular basis
    • We rotate the lead soprano every night

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like

  • noun a similar kind
    the likes of; the like.
    • dogs, foxes, and the like", "we don't want the likes of you around here
  • noun a kind of person
    ilk.
    • We'll not see his like again
    • I can't tolerate people of his ilk

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keep_note

  • verb maintain in the forefront of one's awareness
    • He kept note of the location of the soldiers

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psychological_medicine

  • noun the branch of medicine dealing with the diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders
    psychiatry; psychopathology.

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substitution

  • noun an event in which one thing is substituted for another
    replacement; transposition; permutation; switch.
    • the replacement of lost blood by a transfusion of donor blood
  • noun the act of putting one thing or person in the place of another: "he sent Smith in for Jones but the substitution came too late to help"
    exchange; commutation.

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construe

  • verb make sense of; assign a meaning to
    see; interpret.
    • What message do you see in this letter?
    • How do you interpret his behavior?

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think_up

  • verb devise or invent
    think of; dream up; concoct; hatch.
    • He thought up a plan to get rich quickly
    • no-one had ever thought of such a clever piece of software

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replacement

  • noun the act of furnishing an equivalent person or thing in the place of another
    replacing.
    • replacing the star will not be easy
  • noun someone who takes the place of another person
    alternate; surrogate.

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stick_with

  • verb keep to
    stick to; follow.
    • Stick to your principles
    • stick to the diet

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deduct

  • verb make a subtraction
    subtract; take off.
    • subtract this amount from my paycheck
  • verb retain and refrain from disbursing; of payments
    recoup; withhold.
    • My employer is withholding taxes

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envision

  • verb imagine; conceive of; see in one's mind
    picture; visualize; figure; visualise; image; fancy; project; see.
    • I can't see him on horseback!
    • I can see what will happen
    • I can see a risk in this strategy
  • verb picture to oneself; imagine possible
    foresee.
    • I cannot envision him as President

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stereotype

  • noun a conventional or formulaic conception or image
    • regional stereotypes have been part of America since its founding
  • verb treat or classify according to a mental stereotype
    stamp; pigeonhole.
    • I was stereotyped as a lazy Southern European

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supersession

  • noun act of replacing one person or thing by another especially one held to be superior
    supersedure.

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back

  • noun the posterior part of a human (or animal) body from the neck to the end of the spine
    dorsum.
    • his back was nicely tanned
  • noun the side that goes last or is not normally seen
    rear.
    • he wrote the date on the back of the photograph

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fantasise

  • verb indulge in fantasies
    fantasy; fantasize.
    • he is fantasizing when he says he plans to start his own company
  • verb portray in the mind
    fantasize.
    • he is fantasizing the ideal wife

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incriminate

  • verb suggest that someone is guilty
    imply; inculpate.
  • verb bring an accusation against; level a charge against
    impeach; accuse; criminate.
    • The neighbors accused the man of spousal abuse

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deduce

  • verb reason by deduction; establish by deduction
    derive; deduct; infer.
  • verb conclude by reasoning; in logic
    infer.

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reconsider

  • verb consider again; give new consideration to; usually with a view to changing
    • Won't you reconsider your decision?
  • verb consider again (a bill) that had been voted upon before, with a view to altering it

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animate

  • verb heighten or intensify
    invigorate; enliven; inspire; exalt.
    • These paintings exalt the imagination
  • verb give lifelike qualities to
    animize; animise.
    • animated cartoons

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stir

  • noun a prominent or sensational but short-lived news event
    splash.
    • he made a great splash and then disappeared
  • noun emotional agitation and excitement

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recognition

  • noun the state or quality of being recognized or acknowledged
    acknowledgment; acknowledgement.
    • the partners were delighted with the recognition of their work
    • she seems to avoid much in the way of recognition or acknowledgement of feminist work prior to her own
  • noun the process of recognizing something or someone by remembering
    identification.
    • a politician whose recall of names was as remarkable as his recognition of faces
    • experimental psychologists measure the elapsed time from the onset of the stimulus to its recognition by the observer

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etymologize

  • verb give the etymology or derivation or suggest an etymology (for a word)
    etymologise.
    • The linguist probably etymologized the words incorrectly
    • Although he is not trained in this, his hobby is etymologizing
  • verb construct the history of words
    etymologise.

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for

In the most general sense, indicating that in consideration of, in view of, or with reference to, which anything is done or takes place.

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untune

  • verb cause to lose one's composure
    discompose; upset; disconcert; discomfit.
  • verb cause to be out of tune
    • Don't untune that string!

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overlap

  • noun a representation of common ground between theories or phenomena
    convergence; intersection.
    • there was no overlap between their proposals
  • noun the property of partial coincidence in time

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memorisation

  • noun learning so as to be able to remember verbatim
    memorization; committal to memory.
    • the actor's memorization of his lines

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larn

  • verb gain knowledge or skills
    acquire; learn.
    • She learned dancing from her sister
    • I learned Sanskrit
    • Children acquire language at an amazing rate

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think_out

  • verb consider carefully and rationally
    • Every detail has been thought out

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demarcate

  • verb separate clearly, as if by boundaries
  • verb set, mark, or draw the boundaries of something
    delimitate; delimit.

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be

  • noun a light strong brittle grey toxic bivalent metallic element
    atomic number 4; glucinium; beryllium.
  • verb have the quality of being; (copula, used with an adjective or a predicate noun)
    • John is rich
    • This is not a good answer

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schedule

  • noun a temporally organized plan for matters to be attended to
    docket; agenda.
  • noun an ordered list of times at which things are planned to occur

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step

  • noun any maneuver made as part of progress toward a goal
    measure.
    • the situation called for strong measures
    • the police took steps to reduce crime
  • noun the distance covered by a step
    pace; footstep; stride.
    • he stepped off ten paces from the old tree and began to dig

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fantasize

  • verb indulge in fantasies
    fantasy; fantasise.
    • he is fantasizing when he says he plans to start his own company
  • verb portray in the mind
    fantasise.
    • he is fantasizing the ideal wife

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individualise

  • verb make or mark or treat as individual
    individualize.
    • The sounds were individualized by sharpness and tone
  • verb make personal or more personal
    individualize; personalize; personalise.
    • personalized service

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subsume

  • verb contain or include
    • This new system subsumes the old one
  • verb consider (an instance of something) as part of a general rule or principle
    colligate.

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stand_for

  • verb express indirectly by an image, form, or model; be a symbol
    symbolise; typify; symbolize; represent.
    • What does the Statue of Liberty symbolize?
  • verb denote or connote
    signify; intend; mean.
    • `maison' means `house' in French
    • An example sentence would show what this word means

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by

  • adverb so as to pass a given point
    past.
    • every hour a train goes past
  • adverb in reserve; not for immediate use
    away; aside.
    • started setting aside money to buy a car
    • put something by for her old age
    • has a nest egg tucked away for a rainy day

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raise

  • noun the amount a salary is increased
    wage hike; hike; rise; salary increase; wage increase.
    • he got a 3% raise
    • he got a wage hike
  • noun an upward slope or grade (as in a road)
    acclivity; upgrade; rise; climb; ascent.
    • the car couldn't make it up the rise

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plug

  • noun blockage consisting of an object designed to fill a hole tightly
    stopper; stopple.
  • noun a wad of something chewable as tobacco
    chew; wad; quid; cud; chaw.

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on

  • adjective in operation or operational
    • left the oven on
    • the switch is in the on position
  • adjective (of events) planned or scheduled
    • the picnic is on, rain or shine
    • we have nothing on for Friday night

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about

  • adjective satellite on the move
    astir.
    • up and about
    • the whole town was astir over the incident
  • adverb (of quantities) imprecise but fairly close to correct
    around; some; roughly; approximately; just about; or so; more or less; close to.
    • lasted approximately an hour
    • in just about a minute
    • he's about 30 years old
    • I've had about all I can stand
    • we meet about once a month
    • some forty people came
    • weighs around a hundred pounds
    • roughly $3,000
    • holds 3 gallons, more or less
    • 20 or so people were at the party

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have

  • noun a person who possesses great material wealth
    rich person; wealthy person.
  • verb have or possess, either in a concrete or an abstract sense
    hold; have got.
    • She has $1,000 in the bank
    • He has got two beautiful daughters
    • She holds a Master's degree from Harvard

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ingest

  • verb serve oneself to, or consume regularly
    have; take in; consume; take.
    • Have another bowl of chicken soup!
    • I don't take sugar in my coffee
  • verb take up mentally
    assimilate; absorb; take in.
    • he absorbed the knowledge or beliefs of his tribe

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associative

  • adjective characterized by or causing or resulting from the process of bringing ideas or events together in memory or imagination
    associatory.
    • associative learning

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mouth

  • noun the opening through which food is taken in and vocalizations emerge
    oral fissure; oral cavity; rima oris.
    • he stuffed his mouth with candy
  • noun the externally visible part of the oral cavity on the face and the system of organs surrounding the opening
    • she wiped lipstick from her mouth

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mean

  • noun an average of n numbers computed by adding some function of the numbers and dividing by some function of n
    mean value.
  • verb mean or intend to express or convey
    intend.
    • You never understand what I mean!
    • what do his words intend?

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individualize

  • verb make or mark or treat as individual
    individualise.
    • The sounds were individualized by sharpness and tone
  • verb make personal or more personal
    personalize; personalise; individualise.
    • personalized service

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gestate

  • verb have the idea for
    conceive; conceptualize; conceptualise.
    • He conceived of a robot that would help paralyzed patients
    • This library was well conceived
  • verb be pregnant with
    carry; have a bun in the oven; bear; expect.
    • She is bearing his child
    • The are expecting another child in January
    • I am carrying his child

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severalise

  • verb distinguish or separate
    severalize.
  • verb mark as different
    secernate; separate; severalize; tell apart; differentiate; distinguish; tell; secern.
    • We distinguish several kinds of maple

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rectify

  • verb math: determine the length of
    • rectify a curve
  • verb reduce to a fine, unmixed, or pure state; separate from extraneous matter or cleanse from impurities
    refine.
    • refine sugar

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image

  • noun an iconic mental representation
    mental image.
    • her imagination forced images upon her too awful to contemplate
  • noun (Jungian psychology) a personal facade that one presents to the world
    persona.
    • a public image is as fragile as Humpty Dumpty

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associable

  • adjective satellite capable of being associated
    • words associable with politics

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look_upon

  • verb look on as or consider
    regard as; take to be; think of; esteem; look on; repute.
    • she looked on this affair as a joke
    • He thinks of himself as a brilliant musician
    • He is reputed to be intelligent

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esteem

  • noun the condition of being honored (esteemed or respected or well regarded)
    respect; regard.
    • it is held in esteem
    • a man who has earned high regard
  • noun a feeling of delighted approval and liking
    admiration.

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dreaming

  • noun imaginative thoughts indulged in while awake
    dream.
    • he lives in a dream that has nothing to do with reality
  • noun a series of mental images and emotions occurring during sleep
    dream.
    • I had a dream about you last night

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remembrance

  • noun the ability to recall past occurrences
    recollection; anamnesis.
  • noun a recognition of meritorious service
    memorial; commemoration.

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psychopathology

  • noun the branch of psychology concerned with abnormal behavior
    abnormal psychology.
  • noun the branch of medicine dealing with the diagnosis and treatment of mental disorders
    psychiatry; psychological medicine.

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transfer

  • noun the act of moving something from one location to another
    conveyance; transportation; transport; transferral.
  • noun someone who transfers or is transferred from one position to another
    transferee.
    • the best student was a transfer from LSU

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approximate

  • verb be close or similar
    come close.
    • Her results approximate my own
  • verb judge tentatively or form an estimate of (quantities or time)
    judge; estimate; guess; gauge.
    • I estimate this chicken to weigh three pounds

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long

  • verb desire strongly or persistently
    yearn; hanker.
  • adjective primarily temporal sense; being or indicating a relatively great or greater than average duration or passage of time or a duration as specified
    • a long life
    • a long boring speech
    • a long time
    • a long friendship
    • a long game
    • long ago
    • an hour long

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overpower

  • verb overcome by superior force
    overwhelm; overmaster.
  • verb overcome, as with emotions or perceptual stimuli
    overtake; overwhelm; whelm; overcome; sweep over.

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deputize

  • verb act as a substitute
    step in; substitute; deputise.
    • She stood in for the soprano who suffered from a cold
  • verb appoint as a substitute
    depute; deputise.

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blueprint

  • noun something intended as a guide for making something else
    pattern; design.
    • a blueprint for a house
    • a pattern for a skirt
  • noun photographic print of plans or technical drawings etc.

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head

  • noun the upper part of the human body or the front part of the body in animals; contains the face and brains
    caput.
    • he stuck his head out the window
  • noun a single domestic animal
    • 200 head of cattle

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invite

  • noun a colloquial expression for invitation
    • he didn't get no invite to the party
  • verb increase the likelihood of
    ask for.
    • ask for trouble
    • invite criticism

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associatory

  • adjective characterized by or causing or resulting from the process of bringing ideas or events together in memory or imagination
    associative.
    • associative learning

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regard

  • noun (usually preceded by `in') a detail or point
    respect.
    • it differs in that respect
  • noun paying particular notice (as to children or helpless people)
    paying attention; attentiveness; heed.
    • his attentiveness to her wishes
    • he spends without heed to the consequences

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idea

  • noun the content of cognition; the main thing you are thinking about
    thought.
    • it was not a good idea
    • the thought never entered my mind
  • noun your intention; what you intend to do
    mind.
    • he had in mind to see his old teacher
    • the idea of the game is to capture all the pieces

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heat

  • noun a form of energy that is transferred by a difference in temperature
    heat energy.
  • noun the presence of heat
    high temperature; hotness.

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short-term_memory

  • noun what you can repeat immediately after perceiving it
    STM; immediate memory.

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link

  • noun the means of connection between things linked in series
    nexus.
  • noun a fastener that serves to join or connect
    tie-in; linkup; tie.
    • the walls are held together with metal links placed in the wet mortar during construction

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usurp

  • verb seize and take control without authority and possibly with force; take as one's right or possession
    assume; arrogate; take over; seize.
    • He assumed to himself the right to fill all positions in the town
    • he usurped my rights
    • She seized control of the throne after her husband died
  • verb take the place of
    • gloom had usurped mirth at the party after the news of the terrorist act broke

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line

  • noun a formation of people or things one beside another
    • the line of soldiers advanced with their bayonets fixed
    • they were arrayed in line of battle
    • the cast stood in line for the curtain call
  • noun a mark that is long relative to its width
    • He drew a line on the chart

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look_on

  • verb observe with attention
    watch.
    • They watched as the murderer was executed
  • verb look on as or consider
    regard as; take to be; look upon; think of; esteem; repute.
    • she looked on this affair as a joke
    • He thinks of himself as a brilliant musician
    • He is reputed to be intelligent

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discomfit

  • verb cause to lose one's composure
    untune; discompose; upset; disconcert.

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compute

  • verb make a mathematical calculation or computation
    cypher; calculate; work out; reckon; cipher; figure.

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regard_as

  • verb look on as or consider
    take to be; look upon; think of; esteem; look on; repute.
    • she looked on this affair as a joke
    • He thinks of himself as a brilliant musician
    • He is reputed to be intelligent

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colligation

  • noun the state of being joined together
    conjunction; junction; conjugation.
  • noun the connection of isolated facts by a general hypothesis

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seize

  • verb take hold of; grab
    clutch; prehend.
    • The sales clerk quickly seized the money on the counter
    • She clutched her purse
    • The mother seized her child by the arm
    • Birds of prey often seize small mammals
  • verb take or capture by force
    • The terrorists seized the politicians
    • The rebels threaten to seize civilian hostages

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